Biscuits are the primary product of the biscuit and cracker industries. Flour confectionery refers to a wide variety of flour-based goods other than bread that are made from batter, sponge, or dough through mixing and kneading and may be produced through fermentation, chemical, or other means, resulting in puff/flaky short or sweet product. Biscuits are those that have had their moisture content reduced to the point where they are extremely brittle or crops. (Okaka, 1997)

The term biscuit is derived from the Latin word Biscuit, which means “twice cooked,” as in baking at high temperature followed by drying at low temperature (Okaka, 1997). The terms biscuit and cookie are interchangeable. According to the American Encyclopedia, biscuit is a type of bread that uses baking soda as a raising agent rather than yeast.

Biscuits are delicious. Southern US cousine is a common feature that can be served as a side dish with a meal or as a breakfast item. Biscuits are also said to be essentially bakery confectionery dried down to low moisture content name derived from Latin word for twice cooked, made from soft flour, mostly rich in fat and sugar and thus of high energy content of 420 to 510kcal per 100g they are cherished by people of all ages and used at various meals and occasions as part of breakfast, snacks, etc. they are eaten with butter and jam or jelly or as a part of a dish called “Biscuit and gravy”. Biscuits are also eaten with pizza sauce and cheese on top. There are numerous varieties, both sweet and savory.

Large food corporations produce in industrial quantities. Sweet biscuits are commonly consumed as a snack and may include chocolate fruit, jam, or nuts (peanuts). Savoury biscuits are plainer and typically eaten with cheese after a meal.

The most basic type of biscuit is a mixture of flour and water, but it may also contain fat, sugar, and other ingredients mixed together into a dough that is rested for a period of time before being passed between rollers to form a sheet. After that, the sheet is stamped, baked, cooled, and packaged. Biscuits are generally made from wheat flour but according to the topic of this project, “use of composite blends for biscuit making”. Other than wheat, some other raw materials must be used in the production of biscuit flour. In order to

To achieve a superior product, especially for crackers, consider the following factors: sponge and dough flour selection, fermentation environment selection, and baking conditions. As a result, it is necessary to look for raw materials that produce flour of high quality.

Biscuits are classified based on their level of enrichment and processing, as well as the method used to shape them. The enrichment criterion determines hard dough, soft dough, and batter biscuit. (Okaka; 1997). When compared to hard wheat, soft wheat is used to make flour for most biscuits due to its lower protein (gluten) content. This fact is used to select raw materials from other legumes such as peanuts and roots such as cassava. because they

contain protein though in lesser quantity and quality.

Peanuts, a member of the leguminous family, are one of the world’s most important agricultural crops. It contains edible oil and plant protein. The lack of methionine and tryptophan in legume seed protein is one of its distinguishing characteristics. In fact, methioine is the first essential amino acid to be depleted in almost all legume grains. Peanuts contain approximately 26% to 35% protein, with peanut meal containing a high concentration of nutritionally important amino acids. Vitamin E, Niacin, folacin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, riboflavin, thiamine, potassium, and other nutrients are found in the seeds (Ogbo; 2002). Peanuts also have a high concentration of resveratrol, a powerful antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) prevents oxidized LDL cytotoxicity and protects cells from lipid peroxidation. Hydrophilic properties help lipophilic properties, and it can also provide more effective protection than other well-known antioxidants like vitamin C and E.

Peanut is used for a variety of purposes, including food (raw, roasted or b oiled, cooking oil), animal feed, and industrial raw material. There are four types of peanuts: Virginia, Peruvian runner, Valencia, and Spanish.

Cassava, one of the raw materials, is an indigenous and stable food for millions of Nigerians. National and international research institutions have successfully challenged the few misconceptions about cassava, particularly its low nutritional value and toxicity. National institutions such as the University of Agriculture Umedike in Umuahia

Many Tropical Manioc Selection (TMS) varieties with low cyanide levels have been successfully developed.

Despite the obvious benefits of cassava, such as its ease of propagation through stem cutting. Cassava, despite being a relatively high yielder and an excellent source of calories, has been a neglected crop in agricultural research and development activities for some time, to an extent that is not commensurate with its importance as a food. However, recent developments have increased interest in the crop, and research priority has been given to research on crop improvement, increased production, and utilization.

First, in 1967, the International Society for Tropical Root and Tuber Crops was established to promote research, increased production and utilization, and information exchange on tropical root and tuber crops such as cassava yams. sweet potatoes and steers clear of them. Second, among the International Institutions (International Institute for Tropical Agriculture – IITA – in Nigeria and the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture – CIAT – in Colombia) with programs prioritizing research on cassava improvement, production systems, storage and utilization, and other related training. The Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme (RTEP) was also established to develop and source alternative uses for cassava as an industrial raw material, as well as to create an enabling market environment. Because of improved processing and technological methods for processing cassava, “high quality unfermented flour,” including fortified cassava flours, is now more widely available. These technologies can be used to produce particle / whole wheat flour substitutes from 540 to 100% in bakery and confectionery products such as

Some of these snacks, such as biscuits, chin-chin, and others, have no discernible change in texture, flavor, aroma, or color.

Because of its high protein content and vitamins like vitamin E, which is a powerful antioxidant, cassava flour is fortified with peanut butter in this project. The production of good biscuits is thus primarily dependent on the selection of the appropriate flour for each type and the application of processes that are compatible, such as mixing, accretion and fermentation, laminating, baking, and cooling (Okaka, 1997:- p. 155).


As everyone, including the federal government, works together to encourage foreign exchange conservation through local material utilization. It was decided to conduct research on cassava and peanut blends in order to use them.

as substitute for imported wheat in making flours for biscuit manufacture. Peanut butter is also used to supplement the amino acids.

The results of the Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme’s research and testing show that it is possible to produce acceptable biscuits of comparable quality to wheat flour biscuits using composite flours derived from the aforementioned legumes and roots.

Wheat, whose flour is the main material used in biscuit manufacturing, has traditionally been used in most countries around the world for biscuits and similar products. Although wheat flour is commonly used as a basic ingredient in biscuit production. Wheat is grown uniformly all over the world, and because it is a temperature crop, it can only grow in certain climatic conditions. As a result, biscuit

Manufacturers in countries where wheat is not grown must import the grain or flour.

Wheat is cultivated in countries, specifically Nigeria, though not in significant quantities due to climate conditions; a large sum of foreign exchange is spent on importation, particularly given Nigeria’s current rate of growth in the biscuit and allied industries (Federal Office of Statistics, Lagos Nigeria). Although the date is not yet readily available, there are numerous industries (confectionery) based on wheat flour. Foreign exchange expenditures in 1982 were enormous. As a result, success in this supplementation trend will save a significant amount of money that is currently spent on wheat importation and could now be used to improve other sectors.

of the country’s economy.

The goal of this project work is to reduce or eliminate the extensive importation of wheat, thereby broadening Nigerians’ food base. The commercial and industrial implications will benefit all biscuit consumers by making the product more accessible. The substitution of cassava flour for imported wheat flour will save millions of naira in foreign exchange.

It is also predicted that the use of these composite blends (cassava flour and peanut butter) will result in the production of biscuits that are both less expensive and more nutritious than those previously produced.

It will also generate new job opportunities and economic self-sufficiency among cassava processors at both the industrial and household levels.



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