A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REPORTED CASES OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE

ABSTRACT

The entire project/study discusses the full meaning of the STDS. The causes of sexually transmitted diseases have been identified as viruses and bacteria, which can be passed from one person to another primarily through sexual contact. The study’s scope was also unique, and the federal medical center Umuahia (FMC) was used as a case study. Dr. A.U. Mbanuso conducted one of the studies at the Federal Medical Center Umuahia from 1990 to 1993. His findings revealed that the most common and prevalent sexually transmitted diseases were HIV/AIDS and Syphilis.

Furthermore, we discovered from the designed questionnaire that many people are now aware of the extent of STDS. Secondary data was used for data collection. The size of the population

The reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases under study from 1995 to 2004 will be used to generalize for the entire population.

The main statistical model used in the data collection analysis was chi-square, which was applied to the age group and gender. The X2 cal > X2 tab test hypothesis is shown for the age group. As a result, we reject H0: and conclude that the client rate is not age dependent. The hypothesis test for the sex group reveals that X2 cul > X2 tab. As a result, we reject H0: and conclude that the sexually transmitted diseases under investigation are not sex-dependent.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sexually transmitted diseases, also known as STDS, and their consequences are now the talk of the day, town, and world, including Nigeria. This virus-caused disease is extremely contagious. This virus enters the body through a variety of routes, including sexual contact, blood transfusion, and parental transmission. This virus’s main function is to weaken the body’s Lymphocyte (White blood cell) mechanism, allowing any disease that enters the body to attack even more than expected. It is a major medical problem in both developed and developing countries, and its prevalence is steadily increasing. The evidence from available statistical data has shown an alarming rate of sexually transmitted diseases. Every day, humanity becomes more civilized. The sexually transmitted diseases are divided into three categories: the first category is known as the first generation, and it includes gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid. The second generation includes granuloma ingunale and hympho granuloma venereum. Aids is the third generation (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Because of their frequency, impact on maternal and infant health, and special consequences, as well as their economic cost in terms of health expenditure and productivity cost, sexually transmitted diseases have become a major public health problem in most countries around the world, including Nigeria. It has a serious impact on pregnancy, and newborns are particularly vulnerable. miscarriage, failure of new baby development, blindness, congenital defects, etc. Sexually transmitted diseases cause implication in women such as pekvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic illness, with a high incidence of undiagnosed or poorly treated cases.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The disease, sexually transmitted disease (STDS), is an old strong disease that was discovered in the year 1985 by a great medical scientist known as Lordchester Field, prior to the amalgamation of Nigeria in 1914. This disease has killed many people, but people did not believe it at the time, not until a large amount of research work was done in the laboratory and evidence showed that it is a communicable disease that can be contracted from one person to another through predominantly sexual contact; like gonorrhea, syphilis enters the body veins through blood and weakens or makes the white blood cell known as lymphocyte inactive to attack the disease of the sexuation. You will be able to count the bones and ribs of the victim. However, some people continue to deny the existence of the deadly disease STDS, despite the fact that a statistical data table shows that 7,548 people died from the disease between 1985 and 1990. However, according to recent data collected at the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, 17,277 people were infected. Furthermore, the data gathered above will assist the general public in lowering the rate of sexual acts and sexual promiscuity. According to the federal ministry of health, total abstinence and mutual fidelity are the best preventative measures for or against sexually transmitted disease. (STDS) such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and others. That is why the federal government supported the implementation of sex education and condom use as a program in most of our media, including newspapers, radio, and television. In order to educate the poor masses about the disease and how to avoid contracting it (STDS).

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The rapid spread of these lethal diseases (STDS) does not imply that internal and external bodies, as well as corporate organizations, are not working to address the issue. However, we must not overlook the difficulties that the efforts face. Some of these issues include an insufficient central surveillance system from which all of us will obtain the information that we will carry and respond in our program, because what we currently receive in Nigeria is fragmented and unreconcilable information. Even when things appear to be different, there are no other third-party references to check. In this case, the financial issue contributed to the failure of the efforts. Consider the most recent inhibitors introduced by Hoffmann-LaRoche of Switzerland, Eortovase and

Poor countries like Nigeria cannot obtain Viracept.

We understand that it may seem unbelievable to some people, particularly today’s youth, who have been adamant about the dangers of being a prostitute, a homosexual, a Heterosexual, and having unprotected sexual intercourse. The World Health Organization (WHO) had previously warned partners to be honest with themselves and take preventive measures.

1.3     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

i. Determine how far people have known about the existence of a sexually transmitted disease.

ii. To determine whether the rate at which males are infected is the same as the rate at which females are infected.

iii. To recommend preventive measures for avoiding contact with sexually transmitted diseases and to provide appropriate treatment to prevent the deadly disease from spreading quickly.

iv. To identify the age group that is most affected.

Finally, the goal of this study is to select the types of sexually transmitted diseases under study one by one and use statistical methods to predict what their incidence rate will be in 2005 and 2006.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study found that people are aware of the existence of sexually transmitted diseases. Their causes, sources, and mode of transmission have all been highlighted in this study. Knowing all of this, a greater result can be obtained by launching a program against sexually transmitted diseases, such as using condoms as one of the preventive measures and total abstinence as another. Another significant benefit is that people’s health is improved, while the death effect and other consequences of sexually transmitted diseases are reduced by promoting good medical care and the use of skilled practitioners.

Finally, by achieving all of these objectives, we can ensure good social and economic planning for the current and future generations.

1.5     SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

My field of study is the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMC). It has ten (10) wards, two medical wards for male and female patients, two surgical wards for male and female patients, maternity wards with eighty (80) beds, one ward with forty (40) beds for booked patients and the other for unbooked patients. The pediatrics ward has twenty (20) beds, and the gynecological ward has forty (40) beds. However, my focus is on the steadily rising number of sexually transmitted diseases (STDS). And we’re digging deeper into the four types of sexually transmitted diseases (STDS). And we’re digging deeper into the four.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) include gonorrhea, syphilis, arthritis, and Aids. This study has many limitations, and some issues discovered during the project research should not be overlooked. Some issues include: a financial problem; a significant amount of money was spent on the data collection process. Another issue that causes data collection to be delayed is time.

Furthermore, the data duplication and production of this project work were included. On this note, I was to research records from 1995 to 2002. This is further limited to statistical analysis of the incidence rate of the sexually transmitted disease under study as arranged or grouped into sex, age groups. as well as years. There will also be some prediction or production of the type of sexually transmitted disease under study in the coming year.

1.5     SCOPE AND LIMITATION

My field of study is the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMC). It has ten (10) wards, two medical wards (2) for male and female patients, two surgical wards (2) for male and female patients, and so on. However, my focus is on the increasing prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) such as gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, and arthritis. This study has many limitations, and some issues encountered during the project research should not be overlooked. Some issues are

i. Financial Issues

ii. Delays in data collection due to time constraints

1.6     FOR THE HYPOTHESIS

i. The null hypothesis states that there is no difference in age groups. This means that the incident rate is the same for each age group. The alternative hypothesis is that the incident rate varies by age group, which would reconcile the fact that the incident rate is not the same.

ii. The null hypothesis is also used for incident rate sex, which means that there is no difference in incident rate of sex. The alternative hypothesis is that the sex incident rate differs, which states that the sex incident rate is not the same.

1.7     ASSUMPTIONS

i. The virus that causes sexually transmitted disease (STDS) exists.

ii. Attempts at preventing or curing sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) have been made.

iii. Everyone’s cooperation is required to the greatest extent possible.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

STDS stands for Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

iv. VIRUS: Any living thing that is smaller than a virus.

Bacteria are responsible for the spread of infectious diseases. It can only be seen with a microscope.

v. HIV SEROLOGICAL TEST: A blood test to detect HIV.

This allows the presence of anti-HIV antibodies in the body to be controlled.

ABORTION: The removal of an unwanted child from her body.

wombs of mothers

IMPOTENCY: A man’s inability to impregnate a woman.

woman as a result of sexually transmitted disease destroying manhood (s).

SEX BEFORE MARRIAGE: Sex before marriage

RACE: There are various types of people in the world.

INFERTILITY: The inability to conceive a child or children.

LYPHOCYTE: A type of white blood cell.

that is beneficial

prevent the spread of infections

ANTI-BODY: An organism that is not a part of the body.

but was being introduced to that body

PERINATAL: This simply means “mother.”

HOMO-SEXUALITY: Sexual intercourse between homosexuals.

Persons of the same sex, for example, male to male.

LESBIANISM: Sexual intercourse between people of different genders.

the same sex, for example, female to female

HETERO SEXUALITY: This is a sexual relationship.

between persons of opposite sex, example female to male.

INFECTION: An inversion of the body (entry) of a pathogen.

organism that causes disease

CONDOM: A preservative or “rubber” sheath.

(usually made of latex) used by women to cover the penis or virgin during sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy or disease.

WHO stands for the World Health Organization.

TRANSMISSION MODE: This

is simply the manner in which

which a disease or disease can be transferred over from a carrier to a non carrier.

 

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