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ACTIVITIES OF FULANI HERDSMEN AND ITS IMPLICATION ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of study

The Fulani are the largest ethnic group in the Sahel, with a population of 20 to 30 million people. The Fulani were formerly semi-nomadic cattle herders who traveled great distances along grazing routes in search of nourishment for their herds. The Fulani are a Sahelian ethnic group that is thought to be the largest. The Fulani are largely located in northern Nigeria. However, a mix of political unrest and drought is pushing them south, where they are battling with local farmers. In recent years, tensions between farmers and herders have escalated substantially. According to Dr. Roudabeh Kishi, director of the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED), which tracks and maps war, the conflict is becoming increasingly ethnic. Between January and April of this year, Fulani ethnic militias were responsible for 217 civilian deaths, according to ACLED data, with March being particularly brutal. During the same time period, Boko Haram, one of the continent’s most lethal terrorist groups, killed 78 civilians. ‘Fulani attacks on farmers are mostly pragmatic rather than ideological, as they compete for good grazing area throughout the autumn and winter months. Though many of the area’s farming villages have long considered this as a seasonal issue, this month’s uncharacteristic amount of violence drew the attention of the national government and military,’ adds Kishi. (2018). The concept of community development arose during the colonial period. It is made up of three main elements: community involvement, organization, and work. A process in which people of a community work together to tackle existing problems is known as community development. The community’s economic, social, environmental, and cultural well-being are usually improved as a result of this form of collective effort. A small group or the entire community might initiate community development activities.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The deadly battles between Fulani herdsmen and farmers have caused havoc on many Nigerian villages. Many people have died, many have been displaced, and property has been destroyed, including crops, livestock, houses, automobiles, and so on. Herdsmen and crop farmers confrontations have become one of Nigeria’s most significant security challenges, second only to the insurgency of Boko Haram (Okoro, 2018). The two groups’ violent conflict has manifested itself in the form of bloody clashes (attacks and counter attacks).

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To see if the activities of Fulani herdsmen discourage companies from locating in areas.
  2. To see if the actions of Fulani herdsmen reduce the population of the communities.
  3. To determine whether residents flee the communities following Fulani herdsmen assaults.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Do Fulani herdsmen’s activities result in community growth?

What impact do Fulani herders have on communities?

Do the activities of Fulani herders have an impact on infrastructure development?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study effort is that it focuses on the impact of Fulani herders on community development, and it will be useful to other academics, intellectuals, and students who wish to conduct similar research.

SCOPE OF STUDY

This study was conducted in Esako, Edo state, and focused on the impact of Fulani herdsmen attacks on community service.

DEFINATION OF TERMS

HERDSMEN are those who possess or manage a herd of domesticated animals.

FULANI HERDSMEN: Fulani herders, also known as Fulani pastoralists, are nomadic or semi-nomadic Fulani people who raise livestock as their primary occupation.

A COMMUNITY is a social unit (a collection of living beings) that shares common traits such as conventions, religion, values, customs, or identity. Communities can share a feeling of place in physical territory (such as a country, hamlet, town, or suburb) or virtually through communication platforms.

DEVELOPMENT: The addition of physical, economic, environmental, social, and demographic components, as well as growth, improvement, and progressive change, are all instances of development.

The goal of development is to improve people’s living standards and quality of life while also creating or expanding local regional income and job possibilities, all while safeguarding the environment’s resources.

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: Community development attempts to provide individuals and groups with the information and skills necessary to effect change in their communities. These skills are frequently developed as a result of the formation of social groups dedicated to a common purpose.

IMPLICATIONS: the impact of a decision or action on something else in the future.

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