The primary goal of any business venture is to make money. Though profit grows with time, greater planning, analysis, and implementation can offer efficiency, stability, and much-needed profit in unexpected ways.

The Nigerian marine sector has a lot of resources that it uses on a daily basis. Human, financial, and technological know-how resources are all used in this industry.


As a result, the goal of this research project is to optimize the cost of port operations in Nigeria using a linear programming model to analyze it critically. Cases of marine vessel casualties, including personal injury, death, and property/environmental damage, have increased in recent years in tandem with increased vessel traffic associated with oil prospecting activities and other commercial seaborne transportation in Nigeria’s Niger-Delta/coastal regions. For example, according to statistics (cumulative figures) based on a study conducted by Dogarawa (2012), between the years 2000 and 2009, a total of 552 people died as a result of marine vessel and boat capsizing or collision in Nigeria’s inland waters. In the last ten years, Nigeria’s coastal and inland waterways have had an average fatality rate of roughly 55 deaths per year, excluding vessel and cargo losses. Anecdotal evidence from some of the

Various causal variables have been established; for example, the Maritime Safety Authority of New Zealand claims that during 1995 and 1996, human factors were responsible for 49 percent of marine vessel incidents, 35 percent for technical reasons, and 16 percent for environmental issues. Similarly, according to Rothblum (2002), between 75 and 96 percent of marine vessel accidents are caused at least in part by human error. Human error is also responsible for 84-88 percent of tanker accidents, 79 percent of towing vessel groundings, 89-96 percent of collisions, 75 percent of all collisions, and 75 percent of fires and explosions, according to additional empirical evidence (Rothblum, 2002).

Similarly, Talley et al. (2005) report on a UK Thomas P&I Club survey of 1,500 insurance claims for shipping incidents all around the world during the years of 2000 and 2005.

Human mistake was responsible for two-thirds of personal injury claims, such as carelessness or recklessness under commercial demands, a misplaced sense of overconfidence, or a lack of knowledge or expertise. Rothblum (2002) defines the human factor in this context as a wrong judgment, an incorrectly performed action, or an improper absence of action (inaction). Given the extent of steps taken thus far by local and international organizations to improve the standard of shipping and navigation, these data are alarming.

International rules and regulations, national regulations of flag states and port states, port regulations, and rules of classification societies and insurance companies all play a role in maritime safety.

Furthermore, contracting states have accepted a number of agreements, including the International Conventions on Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Standards for Training and Watchkeeping (STCW), and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (ICPS) (MARPOL). Other conventions include the International Convention on Loadlines (LL) and the Convention on International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (COLREG), among others. This regulatory structure, which is supported by shipping companies’ Safety Management Systems, serves as a foundation for the entire maritime industry’s constant examination of safety regimes. Prior to 1998, ratified IMO safety agreements focused on the vessel itself, such as its construction and equipment, rather on human actions on board.

Following the adoption of the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and Pollution Prevention by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the focus shifted from the vessel to human behaviors on board. Shipping lines must now document their management practices for recognizing and eliminating risky human behavior under this code. The fact that I most vessel accidents are caused by human error; (ii) vessel accident claims are frequently attributed to human error; and (iii) it is less expensive to change human behavior than it is to redesign vessels for safety motivated this shift toward regulating human actions aboard a vessel (Talley, et al., 2005).

However, identifying the sorts of human-related elements that cause maritime vessel accidents is the key to averting them. Many operators make similar efforts internally, and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and industry trade groups have made substantial progress in implementing human factors prevention programs. However, both in terms of preventive activities and the metrics used to measure their efficiency, there is space for improvement. The findings of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the role of human and other cause elements in marine vessel accidents, as well as the deployment of prevention measures that effectively target these aspects.

The following are the study’s goals:

i. Determine the number of marine vessel accidents that occur in Nigeria’s waterways.


ii. Identify the risk factors that contribute to marine vessel collisions in Nigeria’s waterways.


As a result, at 0.05, we propose and test the following hypothesis:


i. Human factors such as lack of safety training, vessel overloading, and speeding are not major causes of maritime vessel accidents.


ii. Environmental elements such as wind, visibility, sea state, and weather do not play a substantial role in marine vessel collisions.


iii. Equipment/machinery failure on a marine vessel is not a key cause of the accident.



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