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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Various causal factors have been documented; for example, the Maritime Safety Authority of New Zealand claims that human factors were responsible for 49 percent of marine vessel incidents between 1995 and 1996, while technical factors were responsible for 35 percent and environmental factors were responsible for 16 percent. Similarly, according to Rothblum (2002), human error is responsible for 75 to 96 percent of maritime vessel accidents. Human error is also blamed for 84-88 percent of tanker accidents, 79 percent of towing vessel groundings, 89-96 percent of collisions, 75 percent of all collisions, and 75 percent of fires and explosions, according to additional empirical research (Rothblum, 2002).

Talley et al. (2005) point out that a UK Thomas P&I Club investigation of 1,500 insurance claims for marine accidents around the world between 2000 and 2005. The complex regulatory and operational context in which the marine industry operates must be taken into account when developing and applying risk assessment and management methodologies to maritime security. The goal here is not to suggest new security-risk assessment models, but rather to highlight some of the existing ones’ flaws in the context of a supply chain approach to maritime security. The research, in particular, presents a first security risk assessment and management approach that can account for the logistics scope of transportation networks. The goal is to move the focus of maritime security from the existing agenda of facility security to a broader supply chain security framework. The document also examines current methods for calculating the costs and funding of transportation security compliance.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Maritime security is, without a doubt, a conundrum (Uadiale and Yonmo, 2010a). As a result of the fragmentation of central government power, a serious problem of marine security has arisen. The Horn of Africa and the Gulf of Guinea are thus emblematic of “the few situations in Africa where land-based security has significantly impacted maritime security.” The absence of marine security in the region, as well as the inability to execute the law and maintain good order at sea, posed a threat to maritime communication and sovereignty, as well as encouraging piracy. While much of the piracy off the coast of Somalia is due to the collapse of administration and law and order in Somalia, the situation in the Gulf of Guinea is quite different. In Nigeria, on-land politics directly influence offshore actions, causing the Niger Delta region’s hub of insecurity to seep into the Gulf of Guinea, promoting disorder at sea. The International Maritime Bureau (IMB), a maritime watchdog, has ranked Nigeria’s seas as the second most dangerous in the world, behind Somalia. Since 1999, the government and the oil sector have been concerned about the spread of piracy in the West African region. In the Niger Delta, militant groups have become pirates, claiming to be destroying the oil sector for political reasons in protest of Nigeria’s squandering of its oil wealth. These political frustrations, however, are rapidly becoming criminal in nature (Uadiale and Yonmo, 2010a).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The goal of this research is to evaluate the use of information technology in the maritime industry to prevent pollution.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. How can information systems be used in the maritime industry to prevent pollution?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho: In the maritime business, information systems cannot be used to prevent pollution.

Hi: In the maritime business, information systems can be utilized to reduce pollution.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Information Communication Technology (ICT) encompasses a variety of ways for exchanging data between two or more devices, such as computers, mobile PDAs, and high-tech gadgets, using any of various means of interconnection, mostly the Internet, to accomplish a specific goal. These technologies allow for quick, low-cost, secure, and convenient communication.

As a result, the importance of ICT in the marine industry on maritime operations and security in developing countries, particularly Nigeria, cannot be overstated.

As a result, the purpose of this research is to determine the impact of ICT on the security of maritime operations.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study focuses on the use of information systems in the maritime industry to prevent pollution, utilizing rivers port as a case example.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1. Financial constraints- A lack of funds impedes the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data gathering procedure (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint- The researcher will be working on this topic while also doing other academic tasks. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Maritime: This refers to anything that has to do with the sea, especially when it comes to seaborne trade or naval concerns.

Pollution is defined as the presence or introduction of a substance into the environment that has damaging or poisonous consequences.

 

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is a broad word that encompasses any communication device or application, including radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems, and other services and applications.

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