One of the elements that increases the chance of alcoholic beverage intake, particularly among the youth, has been recognized as advertising (Alcohol Concern, 2013). Advertisers can insert visuals that resonate with susceptible teens through advertising execution strategies such as humour, celebrity endorsement, and music. Despite the known social and health consequences of alcohol consumption and adults’ lack of awareness of warning indicators, literature shows that the relationship between advertising warning indications and alcohol intake is still understudied. The study looked at how Nigerian university undergraduates felt about marketing for alcoholic beverages that included an 18+ warning indication.
The survey research design was used in this study. The study’s target population was 195,000 undergraduates from nine universities in Nigeria’s south-west. In the selection procedure, a multi-stage sampling technique was applied. Purposive sampling was utilized to choose three states (Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo) based on their university concentration. The universities in the chosen states were divided into three categories: federal, state, and private. Each state was given three universities to choose from (one from each stratum). The sample size of 1,950 respondents was determined using Gay, Geoffrey, and Peter’s formula, which was proportionately dispersed across the nine universities. As the instrument, a validated questionnaire was employed. The constructs’ Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients ranged from 0.735 to 0.945. There was a strong association between students’ awareness of the 18+ warning flag and their attitudes about consumption (r=0.242; p0.05), according to the data. Students’ awareness of the 18+ warning sign and attitudes toward consuming had a significant positive connection (r=0.485; p0.05). There was also a significant positive link (r=0.664; p0.05) between students’ perceptions of the 18+ warning sign’s believability and their attitudes about consumption. The 18+ sign was found to have a substantial impact on underage consumption attitudes (R2=0.494; p0.05). The sentiments of undergraduates about the 18+ warning sign were strongly influenced by demographic characteristics (R2=0.017; p0.05).
According to the findings, the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage marketing deterred undergraduates from drinking alcoholic beverages. Advertisers, as sponsors of promotional messages that promote alcohol use, should increase the use of the 18+ warning sign and other warning labels to be socially responsible, according to the study. In accordance with existing legislation, advertising relevant agencies should also increase their efforts to monitor the substance of advertisements to ensure compliance with defined standards.
Alcohol advertising, awareness, perception, alcohol use, and alcoholic beverage are some of the terms used in this article.
Background to the Study
The most widely used drug among adolescents is alcohol. It’s a common toxin that can affect practically any organ or system in the body if consumed in excess (Anderson, 2007). As a result of drunkenness, alcohol intake involves a risk of negative health and social effects; it is responsible for a variety of social, health, and economic problems, which are especially prominent among teenagers (Australian Medical Association, 2012). According to Chikere and Mayowa (2011), the consequences produced by excessive alcohol intake include widespread diseases such as esophageal cancer, liver cancer, homicide, epilepsy, and liver cirrhosis. In previous decades, alcohol drinking was primarily utilized for entertainment at ceremonies, but in Nigeria today, the quantity and rationale for consumption are fast changing (Chikere & Mayowa, 2011). Nigeria’s new trend of alcohol consumption among young people nowadays contributes to the country’s ranking among the thirty countries with the highest per capita alcohol consumption in the world (World Health Organization, 2004). The quantity of alcohol used by Nigerian teenagers appears to be contributing to an increase in the burden of alcohol-related disorders such as addiction, poor academic performance, dangerous driving, and health problems, to name a few (Dumbili, 2013). Despite efforts to prevent underage drinking, underage drinking remains a public health issue (Komro & Toomey, 2002). Because advertising has been linked to underage alcohol purchase and consumption, the function of advertising as a possible stimulus to alcohol intake and as a contributor to alcohol abuse has been disputed in recent years (Nelson, 2001). Arens (2006) described advertising as “a structured and constructed non-personal delivery of information about items (goods, services, and ideas) by identified sponsors, generally paid for and usually persuasive in nature, across multiple media” (p. 7). Advertising gives the sense that young people can psychologically connect to pleasant dream locales, lifestyles, and personality traits by spending a small amount of money. Advertising can be a source of information for young people regarding the expense of alcohol and its benefits, and the information provided by advertising can lead to negative consequences. The impact of alcohol advertisement on adolescent alcohol use behavior can be shown. Advertisements for alcohol grow appealing to young people between the ages of ten (10) and fourteen (14). (14). Exposure to alcohol advertising, on the other hand, increases the possibility that an adolescent will begin to consume alcohol, and if such an adolescent has already begun to consume alcohol, consumption is likely to grow (Bouwmeester, n.d; Jones & Gordon, 2013). Alcohol advertisements are seen by youths on a variety of communication medium, but television advertising appears to be the most effective form of selling alcohol because children and youths watch television more than any other type of media. The Australian Medical Association (AMA) published a report in 2012. Additional revenue comes from radio commercials and product placement in television shows.
Children have been found to prefer alcohol commercials among the advertisements to which they have been exposed, and their preference for alcohol advertisements has been connected to young alcohol intake (Gunter, Hansen and Touri, 2008). Anderson (2007) reaffirmed this in his statement, which reads as follows:
The adolescent brain goes through a lot of changes, which makes them more prone to impulsivity and more sensitive to pleasure and reward. Young people who already have alcohol-related problems are more likely to be vulnerable to alcohol advertising, with their vulnerability rising as their alcohol intake increases. Adolescents’ susceptibility is exploited by alcohol advertising, which shapes their attitudes, beliefs, and expectations about alcohol usage.
Statement of the Problem
Despite legislation protecting youth and minors from alcohol advertising, young people are constantly exposed to large levels of alcohol advertising on television, radio, the internet, and in print media, whether or not they are specifically targeted by advertisers (Smith and Foxcroft, 2009). Drinking among youngsters and those under the age of 21 has been a serious public health problem since it can lead to a variety of bad outcomes such as alcohol addiction, accidents, poor academic performance, hazardous sex, injuries, and even untimely death. It has been noticed that the sooner young people begin drinking and the more they drink at a young age, the more likely they are to get addicted to alcohol. Despite the fact that commercials for alcoholic beverages appear on television, in print, and even on billboards, most of these young individuals appear to be unaware of the 18+ sign, which is supposed to serve as a barrier to the underage. Many young people begin drinking at an early age (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Another source of concern about alcohol advertising is that it typically associates drinking with themes like enjoyment, companionship, and comedy. Much of this alcohol advertising goes beyond identifying the exact features of the alcoholic beverage to portraying a glamorous and enjoyable image that may be enticing to teenagers, especially those under the age of 21.
Objective of the Study
The primary goal of this research is to determine how university undergraduates feel about the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage ads. The following are the precise goals:
1. establish a link between understanding of the 18+ warning sign and university undergraduates’ attitudes concerning alcoholic beverage use.
2. investigate the association between the recognition of the 18+ warning notice and university undergraduates’ attitudes toward the consumption of alcoholic beverages;
3. establish a link between university undergraduates’ perceptions of the 18+ warning sign’s trustworthiness and their attitudes toward alcoholic beverage use;
4. Research the impact of the 18+ warning notice on underage university undergraduates’ alcohol beverage intake.
5. evaluate the impact of demographic characteristics on a person’s attitude
1. What is the link between being aware of the 18+ warning sign and having a positive attitude?