AN ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIO ECONOMIC INTEGRATION OF NIGERIAN MIGRANT IN GHANA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

In this age of rapid globalization, migration has become a dynamic phenomenon, with a variety of reasons leading to the movement of large numbers of people across many geographical routes. Globalization and technological innovation have made long-distance travel and communication easier, which has influenced migration trends and patterns (Castells, 1996). South-south migration flows, or movement between developing countries, are growing faster than south-north migration flows, or movement from developing to developed countries. The rationale for this south-to-north migratory movement is that developed countries are tightening immigration and border controls, making it more difficult for people from poor countries to migrate to developed countries (Lindo, 2005). According to the Department of the United Nations At the mid-year mark of 2019, the total number of international migrants born in developing countries and residing in other countries in the Global South was 271.6 million, while international migrants born in the South residing in countries in the Global North accounted for 3.5 percent of the total (UN, DESA, 2019). Throughout its history, Africa has experienced both voluntary and involuntary migrant movements, both of which have contributed to its current demographic environment (Hope, 2008). African migration is becoming more complicated and diverse, with more people migrating to a variety of destinations both within Africa and around the world (Flahaux and De Haas, 2016). In some African countries, such as South Africa and The net migration trend in Africa shows massive numbers of people moving, far exceeding the global average, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (Naudé, 2010). Intra-African emigration (movement within African nations) is approximately 52%, which is lower than emigration to Europe (59%), Asia (54.7%), and Latin America (55%). 2018 (UNCTAD). Sub-Saharan African countries have the world’s greatest intra-continental or south-south flow of people, with a figure close to 65 percent. Despite the fact that migration from developing to developed countries receives a lot of attention in the migration literature, Adepoju and Van der Wiel (2010) point out that mobility within developing countries is quite common in Africa. According to Adepoju and Van der Wiel (2000), cross-border movement dominates intra-African migration, particularly in West Africa, where nearly 90% of intra-African migration occurs. the same sub-region. This is because travel is frequently prohibited in certain areas of Africa due to physical barriers such as tight border restrictions. Similarly, the 1979 ECOWAS Protocol on free movement of people, right of establishment, and residency aided the growth of migration in West Africa. Cross-border migration, on the other hand, is a significant source of income and a coping mechanism in Africa, where factors such as deteriorating political, socioeconomic, and environmental conditions, insecurity, violent conflict, and poverty all contribute to migration (Gibney, 2015). Internal migration, immigration, transit movement, and emigration are all common modes of transportation in Ghana (Awumbila et al., 2011). Different groups of people moved to other regions in search of safety, new towns, and new opportunities. and fertile farmland in the 1960s, mostly within Ghana’s borders (Awumbila et al., 2011). Meanwhile, a small number of people, primarily students and professionals, fled to the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries (Awumbila et al., 2011). Migration to Ghana became common during the colonial period. According to Peil, migrant laborers arrived in the United States in the nineteenth century to work in mines, cocoa plantations, and railroads (1974). In recent years, Ghana has experienced a migration reversal, with the number of people entering the country (immigrants) vastly outnumbering those leaving (emigrants) (Awumbila et al., 2008). This was largely due to the ECOWAS agreement on free movement of West African nationals, which strengthened ties between West African countries. For instance, Adepoju (2003) Until the 1960s, the relatively prosperous nature of Ghana’s economy drew thousands of immigrants from other West African countries, particularly Nigeria, Togo, and Burkina Faso. Nigerians have been discovered to be the most numerous West African immigrant nationalities in Ghana. According to the Ghana Statistical Service (2010), approximately 400,000 Nigerians resided in Ghana in 2010. While Nigerian migration to other parts of the world is not new, research has shown that Nigerian migrants prefer to go to places where they can quickly adapt (Bosiakoh, 2009). Ghana has become a popular destination for Nigerian migrants due to their shared colonial history, socio-cultural similarities such as language, and economic ties with Ghana. Many of them took jobs in Ghana when they arrived. the country’s trade and commerce at the expense of Ghanaians (Peil, 1974). Furthermore, according to Peil (1974), Nigerian migrants (particularly Yoruba and Hausa) dominated Ghanaian marketplaces; nearly 40% of female merchants in the Kumasi market were Nigerians. According to Skinner, Nigerians took over the indigenous portion of the diamond mining industry, the waterfront shops in Winneba, and the Fadama motor-parts market in Accra (1963). According to Adepoju (2003), the majority of migration to Ghana prior to the 1970s was motivated by economic factors, as most of these migrants settled in rural areas and engaged in farming, fishing, and trade. Nigerians have been migrating and assimilating into Ghana since I960. The integration process is critical to a migrant’s success in migration. In their destination country, they will either succeed or fail. Integration has emerged as a key policy goal for resettling refugees and other migrants, as well as a source of contention. Integration is viewed as a long-term process in which immigrants participate fully and equitably in all aspects of their new community (Gray & Elliott 2001). Migrants are considered to have successfully integrated when they are well-received in their new communities, have accumulated wealth, are well-positioned to contribute to the growth of both their host and home countries, and have acquired new knowledge and skills (Anwubilam et al., 2008). On the other hand, when they face opposition and rejection in many areas of the destination country, they find it difficult to integrate into their new communities. The first is Socioeconomic integration is a stage in the integration process of migrants in their destination country. According to Anwubilam et al., indicators of socioeconomic integration include access to food, housing, health care, education, employment, remittance flow, and right protection (2008). When a migrant arrives in the country where they will be resettled, they hope to find housing and meaningful work that will allow them to survive while they look for longer-term opportunities. Certain nations, organizations, and international players play a role in migrant integration. According to Heckmann (2008), some countries assist immigrants in accelerating their integration, particularly in the economic and social aspects of their lives. Sweden, for example, helps migrants with social integration by offering internship programs and language classes. newcomers, as well as assisting them in obtaining housing as soon as possible. The Treaty of Lisbon of 2007 empowered European organizations such as the European Union (EU) to provide incentives and assistance to Member States in their efforts to promote third-country citizens’ economic integration (Sigona 2005). Similarly, with the United Nations’ (UN) demand in the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals to “leave no one behind—including migrants,” migrant integration has gained prominence on the global agenda (UN, 2009). The International Organization for Migration (IOM), for example, has developed policies and initiatives to assist migrants in better integrating into new communities, promoting their social, economic, and cultural participation within destination countries’ existing legal frameworks. Similarly, the African Union (AU) has created legal policy tools such as the African Union Charter. such as the African Common Position and the Migration Policy Framework, which highlight important aspects of national, sub-regional, and regional migration and effective integration (AU, 2018). The Migration Policy Framework, in particular, encourages member states to implement policies that protect and promote migrants’ human rights, such as encouraging migrants’ integration into host communities to foster mutual acceptance. Furthermore, from a West African perspective, one of the goals of the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement, right of residence, and establishment is to develop policies to protect the rights of migrants in West Africa. combating exclusion and bigotry among migrants from ECOWAS member countries through an aggressive integration strategy (ECOWAS, 1876). This is done to remove any barriers to migrants’ assimilation. Furthermore, with the assistance of as the African Common Position and the Migration Policy Framework, which emphasize key aspects of national, sub-regional, and regional migration and effective integration (AU, 2018). The Migration Policy Framework, in particular, encourages member states to adopt policies that protect and promote migrants’ human rights, such as encouraging migrants’ integration into host communities to foster mutual acceptance. Furthermore, one of the goals of the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement, right of residence, and establishment from a West African perspective is to develop policies to protect the rights of migrants in West Africa. combating exclusion and bigotry through an aggressive integration strategy for migrants from ECOWAS member countries (ECOWAS, 1876). This is done to remove any impediments to migrants’ assimilation. Furthermore, with the help of

In 2016, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) formally launched a National Policy on Migration and an implementation plan that addresses key migration issues faced by Ghanaian immigrants, such as irregular migration, labor migration, refugee issues, human trafficking, migrant smuggling, readmission, reintegration of Ghanaian migrants, and border management. These measures have been implemented to make it easier to enter Ghana.

1.2 Research problem statement

Migration is a collection of movements that, when considered collectively, can be described as an evolutionary and development-promoting process that occurs across time and space to correct rural-urban, interurban, and interregional imbalances. However, the motivation for migration cannot be separated from socioeconomic benefits, as evidenced by the large number of Nigerians migrating to Ghana in search of economic opportunities. opportunities. According to recent reports, Ghanaians are looking for ways to shut down Nigerian businesses because they believe their economy has been overrun by Nigerian firms, necessitating their departure. This is because Nigerian migrants have failed to fully integrate into Ghanaians’ socioeconomic activity. Nigerian migration to Ghana has increased significantly since the ECOWAS agreement on free movement, residency, and establishment was ratified in 1979. However, as a result of increased migration to Ghana, these migrants are confronted with a number of challenges that impede their socioeconomic integration. Integration of foreigners into host countries is a challenge for many countries, not just Ghana. With the increasing number of Nigerian migrants and asylum seekers in Ghana, the issue of resettling displaced people has reached concerning proportions, with the host country taking the lead.

being overburdened and frequently unable to deal with an influx of foreign nationals, some of whom are illegal immigrants. As a result, the focus of this research will be on Nigerian migrants’ socioeconomic integration in Ghana.

1.3 The study’s objectives

The study’s primary goal is as follows:

1. To discover the reasons why Nigerians migrate to Ghana.

2. Identify migration policies that facilitate the integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana.

3. Determine the socioeconomic factors that facilitate Nigerian migrants’ integration in Ghana.

4. Determine how existing Ghanaian migration policies and legal texts have aided Nigerian migrants’ socioeconomic integration in Ghana.

1.4 Research concerns

The following research question has been posed:

been prepared for this research

1. What are the motivations for Nigerian migration to Ghana?

2. Do you believe there are migration policies in Ghana that facilitate the integration of Nigerian migrants?

3. Do you believe that socioeconomic factors facilitate the integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana?

4. Do you believe that current Ghanaian migration policies have aided the socioeconomic integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana?

1.5 Importance of the research

The importance of this study cannot be overstated because:

1. This research will look into the socioeconomic integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana.

2. The research findings will undoubtedly provide much needed information to government organizations, the Ministry of Education, and academia.

1.6 Purpose of the study

5. This research will look into the socioeconomic integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana. As a result, the socioeconomic factors that facilitate the integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana will be investigated.

1.7 Research limitations

A number of factors hampered this study, which are as follows:

just like any other research, from a lack of needed accurate materials on the topic under study to an inability to obtain data

The researcher faced financial constraints in obtaining relevant materials as well as printing and collating questionnaires.

Time constraint: Another constraint is time, which makes it difficult for the researcher to shuttle between writing the research and engaging in other academic work.

1.8 Term operational definition

Analysis is a detailed examination of something’s elements or structure.

Socioeconomic: the interaction of a group of people’s social and economic habits.

The action or process of integrating is referred to as integration.

 

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