AN ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND CARTOONS AS COMMUNICATION INSTRUMENTS A STUDY OF THE GUARDIAN NEWSPAPER

chapter One
Foreword
1.1 Research background
No other field of journalism requires as much knowledge and skill as photojournalism. The Industrial Revolution played an important role in the development of press photography (Gelnshain, 2002), and the first book of lithographic images (photographs) appeared in his 1840. This pioneering work was followed by two publications in the British Critical Study, London Labor and The London Poor. The use of photography as a graphic representation began in books, and after Peter (2009.p,6) the application of this experience was in magazines. Surprisingly early in May 1842. It was then that Herbet Ingram founded the famous Illustrated London News. This publication relied heavily on image information.
According to Anderson (2014.p,140), photojournalism is a branch of journalism that uses images to tell stories and report events. It differs from other forms of photography such as advertising, architectural and industrial photography. This is demonstrated by adhering to certain journalistic norms such as news, timeliness, objectivity, impartiality, and accurate reporting of events. Photojournalism uses cameras to capture events as they happen. Like news reporters, photojournalists are reporters, but they use cameras to write stories and disseminate news events through images. Photojournalists use images to tell stories, interpret events, and convey feelings about society better than journalists who want a better society (Harding, 2012).
The advent of machine-printed photographs in newspapers opened up a market for press photography. Images were shot primarily for action and content rather than aesthetic considerations. Today they are used in newspapers for a variety of reasons. Another factor was George Eastman’s introduction of the small cameras that were in use at the time. So, thanks to Handyhis camera, photojournalists can easily and quickly document newshis events. Advances in technology have made it possible to capture night scenes and movies that were previously impossible. Frenchman Henri Cartier-Bresson worked from 1930 to his 2004 to document what he called “the defining moment.” Cartier-Bresson believed that dynamism in any situation ultimately reaches its peak when a photographer captures the best possible image.
AN ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND CARTOONS AS COMMUNICATION INSTRUMENTS A STUDY OF THE GUARDIAN NEWSPAPER
Photojournalists used their cameras and knowledge to become a visual interpreter telling readers what an event really was like. It had to be relied upon by an artist to do so, and was later reproduced on a zinc plate by an engraver (Aliagan, 2006). Then the plate he printed on the Hoe press. Because of the lengthy process, it took several days for these line drawings from the photos to appear on his front page in the newspaper. The growth of photography and photojournalism can be attributed to two main factors that occurred at the end of the 19th century. The first is technological innovation. These included the invention of roll film, miniature cameras, faster lenses, and the perfection of halftones, the process of printing photographs as a series of bright and dark dots that allowed newspaper publishers to reproduce photographs quickly. increase.

Photography in journalism informs, educates, and enlightens readers on current issues and looks back on the past. Newspaper photos add credibility to articles. Because they depict reality, they also provide proof of the veracity of the messages and proof of the events that took place. With its aesthetic value, photography can capture the reader’s attention and serve as a tool to break through the monotony of news content.This is how photography enriches and beautifies newspaper pages (Gervais, 2005). . Beyond the positive construction of creating images in front of a camera, the ethic of photojournalism almost flatly rejects image manipulation in programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Although this issue is controversial, standard elements of photo post-processing, such as smoothing wrinkles on a person’s face, enhancing the color of a place, or changing the contrast, are all part of photojournalism. In recent years, there have been numerous major cases of photojournalists being fired from major publications for minor changes in photo editing. An example of this is recoloring a photo, where you can change the color of the sky. This change in sky color may indicate or reduce the occurrence of pollution, may alter the interpretation of seasons, and may even alter the subject’s perspective, Bose, (2002). All these changes contradict the structure of the photojournalism project and violate it on a serious level. Photo editing is allowed in certain circumstances, but should be kept to a minimum when adhering to the strict ethical standards associated with photojournalism.

Newspaper pictures say more than a thousand words. No formal training is required to understand images. Therefore, photography can break down literacy barriers and effectively communicate your message. It is a universal language.

Cartoons are non-verbal graphic communication channels that express the opinions, views and insights of media organizations. They serve the purpose of expressing witty opinions, often referring to topical, burning, topical issues. They are primarily used by the print media to educate, inform and entertain the public (Emi, 2008).

The need for investigative journalism also emphasizes the role of newspaper watchdogs. Humans have two sides of her:
The divine and animal aspects of man are for doing good deeds, whereas the animal side of man is the evil side that can be seen in the various evil deeds and atrocities that humans do. It also illustrates the human urge to dominate, the basic instinct, the acquisition of wealth, and the urge to satisfy their evil and erotic desires.Humans are expected to be rational. But in most cases, animal tendencies tend to take precedence, so that rationality does not always guarantee good behavior. It exists to prevent human society from becoming an animal kingdom and full of evil.

We also need to compare the excesses of the powerful and privileged with those of the less privileged, in order to hold the rulers accountable.

1.2 Problem Description

This study examines the impact and importance of crime illustrations in reinforcing the role of newspaper cartoons as watchdogs in society.

It seeks to establish the impact of comic book illustrations on readers and the extent to which comics have served as sentinels of society.

 

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