Poor waste management has been a major issue for human survival, affecting both rural and urban areas. There are various waste disposal methods, and this study examined waste management practices among residents of Owerri State, Imo State, Nigeria. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which 282 Owerri State residents were chosen using a multi-stage sampling technique and studied using self and interviewer administered questionnaires. The findings revealed that 90% of respondents were aware of waste management and had a positive attitude toward it. Food residues (97.1%) and vegetable products (95.4%) were the most common types of waste generated by households. Open dumping is another example of poor waste management practices among residents, which is practiced by 66.3% of the population. residents, as practiced by 62.4% of respondents. Wheel barrows were the most common mode of waste transport to the final disposal site. Gender and educational status of respondents significantly influenced their waste management knowledge, attitude, and practice (p 0.05). In any environment, good waste management is critical to long-term, healthy living conditions. Owerri residents require health education, regular refuse collection services, and designated final dump sites. These will encourage them to strictly adhere to proper and appropriate waste management practices.




Waste management is the process of collecting, transporting, processing, or disposing of waste materials, as well as managing and monitoring them. The term usually refers to materials created by human activity, and the process is usually carried out to reduce their impact on health, the environment, or aesthetics. The primary focus of this research is on waste management practices in urban developing countries. Waste includes all items that people no longer need and intend to get rid of or have already discarded, such as packing materials, garden waste, old paints containers, vegetables, metals, and so on. Poor waste management has been a major issue for human health and survival in both rural and urban areas. A clean environment promotes good health and well-being.

Man’s productivity is also affected by his health. As a result, a good and clean environment invariably affects the nation’s wealth and economic status.

There are several waste disposal methods, including: Land filling is the practice of burying waste in unused or abandoned quarries, mining voids, or burrow pits and covering it with layers of soil. Incineration is the process of exposing solid organic wastes to high-temperature combustion at around 10,000 degrees Celsius in order to convert them into residue or gaseous products. Dumping on open land or at sea is known as open dumping. Composting is an aerobic, biological process that breaks down biodegradable organic matter. Hog feeding entails feeding animals such as pigs with leftover materials from other animals.

Waste; mechanical destructor: the use of machines to destroy waste materials. Recycling waste, which entails converting waste materials into raw materials, saves natural resources, energy, reduces disposal costs, reduces harmful emissions to air and water, saves money, and creates jobs.

Many factors influence waste disposal awareness and knowledge, as demonstrated by Margaret Banga’s research on household knowledge, attitudes, and practices in solid waste segregation and recycling in urban Kampala. Participation in solid waste separation activities was found to be dependent on the level of awareness of recycling activities in the area, household income, educational level, and gender. Ayodeji Ifegbesan investigated secondary waste management awareness, knowledge, and practices. School teachers in Ogun State were studied, and it was discovered that teachers were aware and knowledgeable about waste management despite having negative waste management practices. People in Nigeria appear to be aware and knowledgeable about waste disposal, but the majority are only aware of crude and traditional methods and are unaware of modern methods such as incineration and recycling. People’s attitudes toward waste management can be influenced by their level of waste management knowledge and awareness, and it has been reported that homes with waste bins engage in proper waste storage more than homes without waste bins. Gender had no significant effect on attitudes toward recycling and waste management in a Nigerian study.

On the willingness to recycle, employment and educational statuses play a role.

Human waste contributes significantly to environmental health hazards. Poor waste management practices contaminate edible products, increasing the burden of infection and disease among citizens. Globally, approximately 1.3 billion tons of waste are produced, with Nigeria accounting for 0.035% of this total. Households generate approximately 85.8% of Nigerian waste. An average Nigerian in urban or rural areas generates approximately 0.49 kg of solid waste per day, with households and commercial centers accounting for nearly 10% of total urban waste burden. Approximately two-thirds of this waste is dumped indiscriminately on streets and in drains, posing serious environmental and health hazards.

Furthermore, improper waste management and disposal may occur. Fly-borne diseases, infections, and infestations include myiasis, diarrhea, typhoid, and cholera; rodent-borne diseases such as Lassa fever plague, leptospirosis, and murine typhus; and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Gases emitted from land fill sites, such as methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and mercury vapor, can also constitute air contaminants and pollution. Another issue that people face in proper waste management and disposal is the lack of storage facilities (waste bins with tight-fitting covers) in some houses, which leads to littering of refuse around the house, which is exacerbated by the lack of drainage systems in such houses. Even where drains are available, they are either not built with a gradient or are not properly maintained.

They become clogged or blocked by sand or other debris, preventing sewer drainage.

Against the backdrop of these identified issues, this study examined waste management practices, factors that influenced these practices, and solutions to avert/prevent the complications that resulted from poor waste management. This study aided in determining people’s level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude toward waste management practices. It also aided in determining the current methods of household waste collection and disposal used by Owerri State Council. The findings are hoped to add to the body of knowledge required to inform appropriate waste management and environmental policy for the country.


Waste management is one of the most pressing issues confronting the world’s major cities. Based on research in Nigeria (Awortwi, 2003 & Obrih-Opareh, 2003) and Kenya 4 (Karanja, 2005 & Mwangi, 2003), they compile evidence on solid waste and urban management in Africa. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) may also play a role in activities such as solid waste collection, sanitation, and public awareness campaigns. Despite efforts to privatize solid waste management, the problem of uncollected solid waste continues to pose a threat to the population and the environment as a whole. Imo state is one of the cities that is struggling with solid waste management, which has led to an unorganized or uncontrolled view of our city. Solid waste management throughout the world One of the first important priorities in the protection of community health and environmental pollution is the world. Solid waste includes all waste generated by human and animal activities that is normally solid and is discarded as useless or unwanted disposal (Tchobanoglous, et al. 1993). When the vehicles that collect solid waste are on their way to dispose of it, instead of collecting it, they simply distribute it throughout the city. This situation is too critical for Imo state council vehicles, which has resulted in the spread of outbreak diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, and other related diseases that affect the country’s human resources and environment. This study will examine the entire waste management process in Imo.


To achieve the main goal, the following questions must be addressed:

1. What is the current state of household waste in Nigeria?

2. What is Nigeria’s waste management policy like?

3. What is the most effective way to reduce waste in Nigeria right now? Is an economic measure the most effective way to reduce waste: Concerning its theoretical foundation.


1. Determine the current state of household waste in Nigeria.

2. To determine Nigeria’s waste management policy?

3. To learn about the most effective ways to reduce waste in Nigeria at this time.


The findings of this study will provide information on the analysis of problems encountered in Imo state at the Imo state m City Council regarding the solid waste management process. The study will also assist the government in developing policies and programs for the state solid waste management process, as well as providing people with a better understanding of how to optimize the state solid waste management process. Furthermore, the research will aid in the development of educational training programs to educate people on the importance of lowering the cost of the state’s solid waste management process. Furthermore, the study will serve as a stepping stone toward reducing the state budget for solid waste management systems and will be useful to private contractors in planning their operations. for the collection of solid waste. Finally, the study will assist state planners in quantifying the costs of state solid waste collections in order to select the most cost-effective option.


This study includes coverage of household waste. However, other types of waste are generated in Imo state. For example, liquid and gaseous waste are types of waste generated in cities. As a result, this study only addresses solid waste management issues. Conclusions and recommendations may not benefit any desired improvement in waste types other than solid waste.

1.7   Limitation of study

Some residents refused to open their gates or speak with the interviewers, possibly due to the state’s precarious security situation at the time. This setback was mitigated in part by the use of well-known indigenous people as interview guides.


The thesis is divided into five major chapters:

The first chapter, Introduction, describes my study’s background, research questions, and objectives.

The second chapter, the literature review, describes the study’s framework, conceptual review, and empirical review.

The third chapter describes the data collection and analysis methods used in the research.

The fourth chapter contains data presentation and analysis, while the fifth contains the necessary recommendations and conclusion.


Leave a Comment