1.1 Background to the Study

Education is a type of social service provided to the general population of a country with the goal of enlightening the people of that country. Education allows for the acquisition of skills, which in turn allows for the growth of a nation. In Nigeria, as in so many other developing countries around the world, there is a firm belief that education is the key to both economic development and political stability. In Nigeria, the same is true. Education is both the driving force behind long-term, sustainable human growth and the pivot point around which all other endeavors revolve. According to Bell’s (2003) hypothesis, no country can advance beyond its current level of knowledge. Countries that have

have accomplished great things around the world place a high value on the role that education has played in their success (Obianime and Nwachukwu, 2021). This is because education allows people to gain useful and relevant information, skills, and attitudes, which allows them to live meaningful lives in which they can contribute to the world. As a result, education frees its students from the shackles of ignorance, poverty, redundant work, and illness.

However, providing a quality education is impossible without an efficient educational system that ensures effective teaching and learning (effective implementation of educational curricula) in schools at all levels. In the absence of such,

There will be no provision for high-quality education in such a system. This is because, during the course of instruction, the curriculum, as it relates to each educational level, is translated by the instructors into concepts, skills, and attitudes, which are then conveyed to the students. When this procedure is completed successfully, the learners’ learning outcomes and performance may improve. This is because, as stated in the National Policy on Education, the true goal of education is for teachers to instill in their students the ideals and principles of good education while also facilitating their transmission to others (Obianime & Nwachukwu, 2020).

Creativity, self-sufficiency and mental independence, a nationalistic outlook, and freedom from

Mental colonization, in addition to brilliant performances in the various subjects taught by teachers, should all manifest as learning outcomes in the lives of students who graduate from that level of education in Nigerian schools, particularly secondary schools. This is in addition to the expectation that students will excel in the various subjects taught by teachers. The aforementioned underlying issues are not unique to Nigerian schools. Scholars concerned with educational development have been hammering on the ever-intriguing issues of Nigerian educational quality failure and students’ poor academic performance in a rapidly changing world with its own complex and complicated schooling phenomena. Schooling phenomena are complex and complicated in this world (Obianime & Nwachukwu, 2020).


Okam (2021) observes, for example, that the average performance of secondary school students in economics on placement tests such as WAEC and NECO has been declining year after year. These tests have both national and international components. Other academics (Lanham, 2020) who share Okam’s viewpoint have attempted to blame the decline in students’ performance in economics and other relevant subjects on poor school physical facilities, out-of-date books in libraries, ill-equipped laboratories, a

They are accepting. This is the context in which this study aims to investigate the factors that have a real impact on the academic performance of students in state secondary schools, with a particular emphasis on economics.

1.2 Problem Description

A number of attempts have been made by writers (Obianime & Nwachukwu, 2020) to investigate the factors that influence the academic performance of secondary school students studying economics. However, none of them have attempted to look at the big picture and identify all of the factors that influence students’ academic achievement in the topic in a single study. Some of the authors did not consider any other factors that might influence students’ academic success in economics aside from the one they researched.

Furthermore, the majority of the writers conducted their research at the state level, but they did not include a significant number of secondary schools or students from the local education districts (Obianime & Nwachukwu, 2020). As a result, the goal of this study is to fill in the gaps identified above by focusing on secondary schools and the students who attend them in the local education districts. Furthermore, this study will look into all of the factors that are thought to influence students’ academic performance in economics, categorizing them into four groups: home, school, and classroom environmental factors.

1.3 The Study’s Objective

The study’s overarching goal is to investigate

ntiquated workshops, abandoned classroom blocks, unmotivated shabby teachers who appear hungry, a lack of available instructional materials, and insufficient availability of classroom-based furniture and equipment. Okam rejects these explanations. He believes that the decrease in student enrollment is the result of

Nonetheless, as of today, the government in some states has implemented a notable policy. action that has resulted in the renovation of the physical facilities in almost all of the public primary and secondary schools in the state of Lagos, as well as providing them with adequate school and classroom based infrastructure. Even better, some of the schools have been provided with the necessary resources to support Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The instructors have also received financial incentives, so neither they nor the students are being overlooked. According to a recent Damole (2019) report, all of the aforementioned positive changes implemented in state schools have not resulted in any discernible improvement in the students’ performance in the various subjects that they are studying or in the placement tests that they take.

Furthermore, the majority of the writer variables influencing secondary school students’ academic achievement in economics. Based on this primary goal, this study sought to:

i. To investigate the various factors influencing secondary school students’ academic achievement in economics.

ii. To assess the impact of the school environment on students’ economics academic achievement.

iii. Determine the extent to which teacher quality influences secondary school students’ academic achievement in economics.

1.4 Research Issues

For this study, the following questions have been formulated:

i. What are the various factors influencing secondary school students’ academic achievement in economics?

ii. What effect does the school environment have on students’ economics academic achievement?

iii. To what extent do you believe

How does teacher quality affect secondary school students’ economics academic achievement?

1.5 Importance of the Research

This study will be very useful to the federal and state education ministries because it will reveal the various weak areas that require policy actions to strengthen teaching and learning in secondary schools in order to achieve the expected performance among students.

Furthermore, the findings of this study on the factors influencing state secondary school students’ academic performance in economics are expected to add to the existing literature and body of knowledge on the influence of home, school, classroom, and socioeconomic factors on state secondary school students’ performance.

While previous research has generally addressed and evaluated the specific effects of

In many other areas in Lagos State, little effort has been devoted to secondary school students’ learning and experiences; thus, this study is an effort that has filled this gap.

The study will also benefit the academic community by adding to the existing body of knowledge.

1.6 Scope of the Research

This study will look at the various factors that influence secondary school students’ academic achievement in economics. The study will also look at the impact of the school environment on students’ economics academic achievement. Finally, the study will determine the extent to which teacher quality influences secondary school students’ academic achievement in economics. As a result, this study will be limited to Edo.

1.7 The study’s limitations

The researchers encountered minor constraints while conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. Inadequate funds tend to impede the researcher’s efficiency in sourcing relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection process (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher chose a moderate sample size. Furthermore, the researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. As a result, the time spent researching will be reduced.

1.8 Definitions of terms

Variables are elements, features, or factors that can vary or change.

Academic achievement: performance outcomes that indicate how far a person has progressed toward specific goals. the focus of activities in educational settings, particularly in schools, colleges, and universities


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