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AN INVESTIGATION INTO UNDERSTANDING AND PRACTICE OF CONTRACEPTION AMONG STUDENTS OF COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

“Contraceptives are drugs, devices, or practices used to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant,” according to the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English. 1 While this definition is comprehensive, it excludes the use of condoms as a preventative measure against the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS and HIV (Bugssa, 2014). Contraception has been practiced for a long time, dating back to when our forefathers planned when they would mate with their wives and when they would not, depending on whether or not they wanted to have children. They have a mental image of when their wives’ monthly menstrual flow occurs or how long their wives must breastfeed their children in order to be able to work. to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Others traditional women go so far as to wear contraceptive bands around their waists to prevent unwanted pregnancies, which some regard as extreme (Konje, 1998). Every year, approximately 75 million unplanned pregnancies occur in women all over the world. Unwanted pregnancy can happen for a number of reasons, the most common of which is that the couple did not use contraception or that the method they were using failed. Lack of access to family planning information and services, incest or rape, personal or religious beliefs, a lack of knowledge about the risks of pregnancy after unprotected sexual relations, and women’s limited decision-making abilities regarding sexual relations and contraceptive use are just a few of the factors.

reasons why people do not use contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancy. 2 Many women are denied access to family planning services (Nibabe, 2014).

Contraception use by both men and women has been widely accepted and practiced in the industrialized world for many years. This has not been the case in the developing world, where male chauvinistic cultural beliefs that women should protect themselves against unwanted pregnancies have prevailed, rather than males allowing women to use contraception.

Despite the fact that child bearing requires a collaborative effort on the part of both men and women, it is viewed as a key responsibility of the female gender in the developing world. The use of contraception by men in

The use of contraception among women in these areas has not been promoted to the same extent. Male contraception does not appear to be supported or encouraged in African culture, and men are led to believe that they have no role to play in reproductive health and rights (Ameh, 2007).

In the industrialized world, the general public has outgrown persistent misconceptions about contraception and males’ negative attitudes toward it. However, because male contraception is not supported in developing countries, there is a scarcity of information about it, as well as a decrease in the desire to learn more about it. According to research, men want better contraception.

They have options. In a recent survey in the United Kingdom, 80 percent of males named the hypothetical male pill as one of the top three contraceptive options (Brooks, 1988).

According to another survey, more than 60% of men in Germany, Spain, Brazil, and Mexico would be willing to try a new type of male contraception if it was offered to them (Heinemaan, 2006).

Another study, “Why Nigerian Adolescents Seek Abortion Rather Than Contraception: Evidence from Focus Group Discussions,” asked youths about contraceptive availability, perceived advantages of the method used, side effects, and young people’s reasons for using or not using contraception, among other things.

Researchers discovered that anxiety about future infertility played a significant role in

Teenagers may choose induced abortion over contraception.

Contraception is more common in the female gender than in the male gender. Those of the feminine gender are as follows:

The Combination Pill:

There are two types of oral contraceptives available: eniphasic pills and biphasic pills, as well as Everyday/ED tablets. Taking these as directed has a 99 percent success rate. They contain two hormones, estrogen and progestogen, and their action is to suppress ovulation when taken daily.

Miniature Pill:

This pill contains only progestogens. It is 98 percent effective when taken correctly and consistently on a daily basis at the same time. It causes changes in the womb, making it more difficult for sperm to enter.

womb and carry the pregnancy to term.

There are two injectable contraceptives available: depo-provera and noristerat.

In 99 percent of cases, it is successful. Furthermore, it inhibits ovulation in the same way that the mini pill does. It provides protection for up to three months longer. Throughout her menstrual cycle, it may cause irregular periods and break through bleeding. The intrauterine device has a success rate of 96 to 99 percent. A doctor inserts a plastic or copper device into the womb to prevent the ovum or egg from settling and causing birth defects. A diaphragm or cap can be 85-97 percent effective when used properly. It is a flexible rubber device.

is placed in the vagina prior to sexual contact to cover the cervix and create a barrier that prevents sperm from contacting the egg during the encounter. It must be used in conjunction with a spermicide and must be left on for at least six hours after sexual contact. Sponges are 75-91 percent effective when used correctly. To cover and protect the cervix, a soft circular polyenthrane foam sponge is inserted into the vagina up to 24 hours before sexual contact.

It already contains a spermicide in its formula. Female reproductive system sterilization is a permanent method of birth control in which the fallopian tubes are surgically blocked, preventing the egg from traveling down the tube to meet sperm. Despite its long-term efficacy,

It has a 1:300 failure rate, in which the tube rejion and fertility return.

Natural Techniques (such as the “Safe Period” and the “Rhythm technique”).

Its efficiency ranges from 85 to 95 percent.

This method is used to predict ovulation during the period when the woman is most fertile. During this time, sexual contact is forbidden.

To use this method, you must take daily body temperature measurements while also noting variations in vaginal nuclear temperature and other ovulation symptoms.

Male contraceptive methods include the following:

When used correctly, it is effective in 85 to 98 percent of cases.

It is made of thin rubber and is worn on the penis while it is being used.

in an erect position.

It prevents sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.

It protects both parties from sexually transmitted infections while also protecting the woman from cervical cancer.

Menstrual Sterilization (Vasectomy): This is a permanent method that involves cutting or blocking the tubes that transport sperm from the testicles to the penis (vas deferens). It’s used to avoid pregnancy.

It is a permanent method of contraception, similar to tubal ligation in women.

To completely remove the sperm from the tube, another form of contraception must be used for approximately 3 months after a vasectomy.

This method has a failure rate of one in every hundred attempts.

c. Withdrawal Procedure: Despite the fact that

Despite the fact that this method is frequently ineffective, some people use it.

They remove the penis from the body before ejaculation occurs during orgasm.

It is ineffective because it does not address the issue of sperm entering the vagina prior to the orgasmic experience. Emergency contraception can help prevent pregnancy following unprotected sexual encounters, a contraceptive accident or misuse (such as a condom breakage or a failed coitus interruptus), or rape, among other things. In an emergency, there are two main methods of contraception that can be used:

A. Contraceptive pills for emergency use (ECPs)

b. A copper-based intrauterine device (IUDs).

These two treatments must be used simultaneously.

A few days after an unprotected sexual encounter.

They are perfectly safe for the vast majority of women. ECPs contain the same hormones as family planning pills but are administered differently. These medications prevent both the release of eggs and the fertilization of eggs.

They immobilize sperms and impair their motility, preventing egg fertilization and causing uterine lining changes, both of which are detrimental to achieving pregnancy.

1.2 DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM

True, most of our households provide insufficient sexual education, with the belief that doing so will cause the child to be promiscuous or to put what they have learned to the test. However, we are all aware that such beliefs have outlived their usefulness. Coitus will exist whether or not people are educated. Others’ actions will always be influenced by their peer groups, and those who have not yet been exposed to the behavior will learn it in a negative way (Ameh, 2007). As a result, it is now the responsibility of adults to educate the adolescent or early adult population about the importance of reproductive organs, the use of contraception to prevent unwanted births, and even reproductive system illnesses. The goal of this study is to encourage parents and school officials to educate our future generations on the importance of contraception and family planning. As a result of this,

If this does not happen, there will be an increase in the number of unwanted births, sexually transmitted illnesses, and an unnatural increase in the population of the society.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study’s overarching goal is to investigate students’ understanding and practice of contraception at the college level. The research will be guided by the following criteria:

i. To see if students in a college of education understand how to use contraception.

ii. Determine whether or not college of education students use contraception.

iii. To assess the impact of understanding and practicing contraceptive use among college of education students.

iv. To suggest methods for increasing students’ understanding and use of contraception.

of college of education.

1.4 QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH

The following study questions have been prepared:

i. Do college of education students understand the use of contraception?

ii. Do students in a college of education use contraception?

iii. What is the impact of understanding and practicing contraceptive use among college of education students?

iv. What methods can be used to improve students’ understanding and practice of contraception use in college?

1.5 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

The need for contraception and population control has evolved over time, particularly in Africa, with female methods such as the pill, injectables, and so on. Men had previously used only the condom and the withdrawal method.

The growing demand

Male contraception cannot be overstated as humans become more aware that greater cooperation between spouses is required for family and reproductive health to grow and blossom; with a greater understanding that everyone involved will contribute their quota to the family’s success.

To that end, there is an urgent need for research of this type to identify the contraceptive devices that may be in use now, the knowledge of their use, and how well adolescents comply with their use in order to educate them so that they can have a good start in their understanding of when to have children and when not to. This is done with the understanding that a good start, when properly nurtured, will yield a good result.

bring about a good end.

This study will provide us with an overview of the perception or knowledge, usage or practice of contraception among these adolescents, allowing us to educate them on what constitutes good family or reproductive health practice. This will result in a better moral education for the society around us.

This study will be important to the academic community because it will add to the existing literature.

1.6 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVE

This study will look into whether or not college students understand how to use contraception. The study will also determine whether or not college of education students use contraception. The study will look into the impact of understanding and applying

Contraception is popular among college of education students. Finally, the study will suggest ways to improve students’ understanding and practice of contraception use in college. As a result, this study will be limited to the college of education in Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State.

1.7 THE STUDY’S LIMITATIONS

The researchers encountered minor constraints while conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. Inadequate funds tend to impede the researcher’s efficiency in sourcing relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection process (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher chose a moderate sample size. Furthermore, the researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. As a result, the quantity of

The amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Practice, as opposed to theories about it, is the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method.

Understanding is the ability to comprehend something.

Contraceptive: a method or device for preventing pregnancy

 

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