Analysis of The rate of death of our children attracts concern from every Nigerian

It is obvious that the only way to annihilate a race is to eliminate its means of future reproduction, which are children, and these children are thought to be our future presidents, governors, and so on, assuring older generations of a better tomorrow.

Infant morality has a significant impact on demography.

The early death rate has been described as a critical test of a country’s health service and special progress.

The life of a young child is entirely dependent on the care of mothers. Based on this, the government, through the Ministry of Health, fights to reduce all preventable childhood diseases that cause infant deaths to the bare minimum. This resulted in

way to the introduction of the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) and ORAL Dehydration Therapy (ORT). These programs teach parents how to make salt, sugar, and water as an oral drip to treat diarrhea and immunize against poliomyelitis, small pox, chicken pox, whooping cough, and tuberculosis.

Since the implementation of these programs, significant progress has been made in reducing infant mortality. This prompted me to create this project.

Using data from Park-lane General Hospital in Enugu on the number of infant deaths and gender distribution.


The Cover Page

Page Title

Page of Approval




Contents Table


1.1 Purposes and objectives

1.2 The research’s limitations

1.3 Definition of terms



3.1 Data collection method and source

3.2 Issues encountered during the research

3.3 Analytical Methodologies

3.4 Calculation of the population ratio

3.5 Demographic information

3.6 The Chi-square

The Wilcoxon rank-sum test (3.7)

3.8 Information on births

3.9 Death information


4.1 Population proportion estimation

4.2 Analysis of demographic data

4.3 Chi-square calculation

4.4 Wilcoxon rank-sum test evaluation




5.1 Results and Conclusion

5.2 Concluding Remarks

Recommendation No. 5.3




Diseases are the leading cause of infant mortality, and the prevalence of parasite hosts in certain areas contributes to this. Thousands of children are born in this country each year, and thousands of them die from diseases such as diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, and childhood tuberculosis.

This is stated in a pamphlet on the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) published in Lagos in 1981 by the Federal Epidemiological Unit of the Federal Ministry of Health.

A variety of factors influence children’s development and survival, including environmental sanitation, nutrition, and parents’ lack of awareness. Some children are malnourished because their parents do not understand what constitutes a balanced diet. They lack knowledge.

What allows children to grow normally and develop strong immunity against diseases caused by a malnourished diet. Some parents are illiterate and ignorant, which is why children die in some remote areas of the country due to carelessness and parental ignorance.

Ignorance, in the sense that some parents are unaware of or do not follow the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) introduced by the Ministry of Health to ward off those six killer diseases. Currently, the government of Nigeria has carried out a national expanded programme on immunization (EPI) to control these six childhood diseases throughout the federation.

Despite the fact that Nigeria has been declared small pox-free, surveillance for the disease continues. The government should be applauded for

Their efforts to raise parental awareness and to combat these diseases, resulting in a reduction in infant mortality in the country.

More can be done by educating parents on how to maintain good environmental hygiene as well as nutritional standards in their diets in order to raise healthy children.

Actually, the rate of infant mortality motivated me to conduct research on this project topic and suggest ways to reduce infant mortality.


The following are the project’s goals and objectives:

1. To determine the male-female death ratio among infants under the age of one year.

2. To determine whether infant mortality is higher than the standard infant mortality range of (10-55) deaths per 1000.

3. To see if a child’s mortality is independent of his or her gender.

4. Determine whether the mean mortality rate for male and female infants is the same.

5. To propose potential preventive measures to reduce the number of infant deaths.


The scope and coverage area of this study are limited to the Park-lane Hospital in Enugu. The age range considered in this project is from one month to one year because, according to the definition of the term “infant mortality,” the most ideal age is between one month and one year.


i. Demography: This is defined as the study of human population statistics; it aids in understanding how population growth has behaved in the past and how it will behave in the future.

ii. Morbidity Rates: Morbidity in statistics refers to illnesses, injuries, hospitalization, and incapacity based on local definitions of sickness.

At an appropriate level of measurement, this term refers to diseases or injuries. The general intention is that the terms used should cover the entire course of a single disease or injury in a single person, as long as the course is relevant to the specific inquiry at hand.

Morbidity data is collected using specific reports, such as;

1. Disease notification in the case of infection

2. Notification of congenital abnormalities, which is also being collected

Create a special disease register, such as a cancer register or a coronary register.

iii. Infant Mortality: The mortality rate is the index of death over the index of birth for a given period, and infant morality is defined by taking into account the term used in their project work as infants aged 1 month to 1 year.

According to Puffer R.R. Serrand in his book Mortality in Childhood 1978, it is defined as the number of deaths under one year multiplied by 1000.

It is mathematically represented as:

Number of deaths under one year multiplied by 100

The number of new life births

Infant mortality rates differ by country.

iv. Diseases: These are illnesses or disorders caused by infections. There are numerous diseases that cause

about death of children. These diseases are as follows:

Tuberculosis is one of the most common diseases.

Measles is an example of a contagious disease.

Whooping cough (iii).

Diphtheria is the fourth disease.

Tetanus is a type of tetanus.

Smallpox is a type of smallpox.

Poliomyelitis is a type of poliomyelitis.

Kwashiorkor (Kwashiorkor)


Tuberculosis is a common acute or chronic disease that can result in disability or death.

It usually affects the lungs, bones, joints, and nervous system.

The tubercle bacillus can enter the body through the skin and lymphatics via inhalation infection or direct inoculation. Bacillus inhalation via droplet formation caused by coughing or sneezing.

Fever, weight loss, and chest pains are signs and symptoms.

Preventive measures include public health education and the isolation of known cases, followed by BCG vaccination against the disease.


This is a contagious childhood disease.

spray from the nose, throat, and mouth of people suffering from the most easily transmitted communicable diseases.

Symptoms include fever, headache, and rashes all over the body.

Preventive measures include immunizing children against the disease and isolating cases of measles from susceptible children for 5 days after the rash appears.

The whooping cough

Whooping cough is a severe bacterial infection that is one of the leading causes of death in children. The disease is spread through droplet spread and direct or indirect contact with discharge from infected people’s respiratory mucos membrances.

Symptoms include an irritable cough and a slight fever.

Preventive measures include:

i. Isolation of previously identified cases

ii. Health education for the general public, with a focus on


iii. Protection against whooping cough vaccination


This is an infectious disease characterized by the formation of fibrous pseudo-membranes on the mucosa, most commonly the respiratory tract’s mucosa. Droplets from a carrier’s or a patient’s respiratory tract spread it.

Active immunization with diphtheria toxoid is the only effective control.


This is a disease caused by a tetanus bacillus toxin that grows anaerobically at the site of an injury.

Tetanus is a universal risk, especially in developing countries, and can be transmitted through the umbilical cord in newborns.

Only active immunization, preferably with absorbed to toid, can provide effective and long-lasting protection against tetanus, which is typically provided in childhood.

or in childhood.


This is a very serious disease that spreads quickly from person to person, killing children, disfiguring them, and causing blindness.

It is caused by germs that are spread through coughing and sneezing and can be avoided by isolating the infected person and vaccinating them.

High fever, headache, backache, and pimple-like rashes are signs and symptoms.


This is a viral disease with seventy variants ranging from obvious infection to nonparalyte disease. The causative agent is a member of the enteromous family.

Polionmses are composed of three (three) immunologic strains that are associated with epidermics. In addition, humans, chimps, and monkeys are vulnerable.

Polioviruses are primarily transmitted through direct contact and by carriers. The virus is present in the throat secretion and

It promotes infection spread by increasing intestinal excretion, particularly in areas with poor sanitation.

Signs and symptoms: There are three clinical forms of poliomyelitis: abortive, paralytic, and non-paralytic. They all share fever, headache, sore throat, and stiff neck.

Preventative measures include active immunization of all susceptible individuals against three types of polio viruses.

i. Separation from



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