This project corresponds to one of the tasks I must complete in order to be awarded the Higher National Diploma Certificate in Statistics Department from the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, during my final year in the Polytechnic 2004/2005 session, emphasizing on Statistical Analysis of Road Accidents in Enugu from 1993 to 2000.

Road accidents have been a major source of social and economic concern. It has evolved into a comprehensive scientific research topic. The number of deaths on the road today, particularly on major rural-urban roads, inspired me to create this project.

This study is primarily based on a statistical analysis of road accidents recorded on Enugu rural-urban roads between 1993 and 2000, with the goals of identifying

the causes of road accidents in Enugu and compare the attendant fatalities/deaths, determine whether the causes of road accidents are unrelated to vehicles, establish the trend of road accident over the years, investigate whether there is any seasonal pattern of the attendant deaths and trend, and recommend methods or ways of reducing road accidents to the Enugu State government

The project is broken down into five chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction, the socioeconomic effects of road accidents, the goals and objectives, the scope and limitations, and the significance of the study, sources of data and the problems of the data collection. The second chapter is a review of the literature. The third chapter is about methodology. The fourth chapter is about data presentation and analysis. Finally, chapter five discusses the findings, conclusion, and recommendations for the future.


1.0          INTRODUCTION

Transportation, which is the movement of goods and passengers from one phase to another or the movement of commuters and their goods, produce, and products, and/or they themselves from one location to another, has played an important role in the development process in the world today, serving as one of the aspects of developmental change indicators and structural well-being of society and government among other sectors or areas of the world socio-economic development. It not only allows for business transactions to take place, as well as market opportunities for our goods, produce, and products, but it also allows for such to reach the target consumer (s).

For example, in Costa Rica prior to the construction of the interamerican highway, driving beed cattle on the highway was common. Hoofing from grazing lands to San Jose often resulted in a 40% reduction in weight, and imports were required to meet local demands. However, with and weather highway, it was possible to deliver truck-traider units of cattle over night, allowing Costa Rica to become self-sufficient in meet. In Bolivia, the highway from Cochabamba to Santa Cruz cut travel time from several weeks to fifteen hours during the rainy season and provided a link between the country’s food supplies and its people. Because of the high cost of transportation, domestic rice was previously priced 50% higher than imported rice. Furthermore, transportation, as an integral component of the national production and distribution system, necessitates its development, improvement, and expansion.

system as to necessitate or provide a means of servicing domestic and international market.

This is especially important in the early stages of economic development because it encourages capital accumulation, allowing the economy to progress beyond the subsistence level where most production is consumed locally. As a result, transportation and other government programs such as education and health care must compete for public funds, particularly in developing countries.

As a result of their improvement and technological advancement over the years, developed nations are efficient and effective in the transportation business.

Nigeria has one of the most modern and efficient development transportation systems, with rail, road, air, and in-land waterings running the length and breadth of the country.

To connect the industrial, commercial, and agricultural centers, transportation in Nigeria has traditionally been divided into four major modes: road, rail, water, and air. However, in this study, the researcher focuses solely on road transportation.

Roads in Nigeria are classified into three types: truck A roads, which are the responsibility of the federal government, truck B roads, which are the responsibility of the state government, and truck C roads, which are the responsibility of the local government. Whether truck A, truck B, or truck C roads, motorists, cyclists, and pedestrians use these roads to transport passengers, goods, produce, or products, or to reach, transact, and communicate with another n different destination. Not only has road transportation been

It was discovered as the cheapest mode of transportation, but it also provides door-to-door transport services and goods delivery.

But, aside from road congestion, which is a symptom of insufficient road space to meet all demands made on it, road accident is another difficult task in traffic management schemes and has been of great concern to various governments of our time; thus, the concern of any well-organized government is how to identify and minimize (if possible, curb) the high rate of accidents on our roads today.

We are aware of the number of highway deaths that are being reported these days. This calls into question the value we place on human life and property. It is obvious on the basis of

of logic supported by observations that certain people have a higher accident rate than others. This study will investigate why this is the case and will also make recommendations to reverse the negative trends. People who drive recklessly or dangerously are at a higher risk of being involved in an accident. They are also an annoyance to society.

The majority of accidents were caused by a large number of actors. Among the most notable are those listed below:

1. Over-speeding: This can be due to greed or the desire to make as many turns as possible in order to be ahead of others, without considering the consequences. In doing so, they disregard road signs, warnings, and traffic regulations and laws. As a result, the risk of

Some are dangerous.

2. Drugs/Alcohol: The negative effects of drugs or alcohol on our bodies cannot be overstated. These cause drowsiness and, eventually, sleep. They result in incorrect calculations and a disregard for the lives of human beings and the property of the driver in question. Some causes excessive alertness and nervousness, loss of control, and, eventually, a breakdown of the person’s body system.

3. Roads (Road Accidents Immune Delusion Syndrome): Some drivers, because they have driven a specific vehicle for years, develop the feeling that they have overmastered the vehicle and are also fully experienced and believe that they cannot be involved in a road traffic accident. Others or other drivers, because of their belief in a shrine, ring, talisman, etc., believe that they cannot be involved in a road traffic accident.

They cannot be involved in, or die in, a traffic accident because they drive without regard for traffic laws or other road users.

4. The Road: The road’s construction is extremely important. Many accidents occur on roads with multiple bands. Many accidents occur on poorly constructed roads, such as the presence of informal byways and very narrow roads. Poorly maintained roads are the root cause of many accidents. The absence of road signs, for example, to show construction sites, narrow bridges, cross roads, bumps, “T” junctions, and so on, contributes to road accidents.

5. Negligence of road Signs: Because most Nigerian drivers are illiterate, they are unable to read road signs, endangering their own lives as well as the lives of others and property.

6. Aggression: This is a psychological issue. Also as a result of or as a result of

be due to a lack of sleep the night before as a result of one or more problems. The driver then awakens irritated and aggressive. He jumps into the vehicle without doing the morning drills, has disagreements with the vehicle passengers, co-drivers, and road traffic officers, and so on, putting himself and others at risk.

7. The Weather: This includes rain and sun, as well as their effects on the roads. Rains wet the roads and make them slippery; as a result, tyre treads lose grip on the road and make braking almost impossible when needed. The sun heats up the road tar, which in turn heats up the tyres. When this happens, weak tyres are more likely to burst. Both conditions are the result of

If not observed, there will be accidents on our road.

8. Topography: This includes hilly, rocky forest, and savanna terrain. Areas where roads run between hills, particularly those with dedling rock, pose a significant risk to road users. Where such exits exist, the viewing distance is reduced, and rocks can fall into the road at any time, causing accidents. Similarly, where roads cross forests, trees, and/or their branches, many fall into the road and, if not noticed in a timely manner, can cause serious accidents. Animals in the forest may cross the road at any time, and grazing animals common in the savanna may also cause accidents.

9. Pedestrian Carelessness: The other most common road user is the pedestrian.

Because of illiteracy and lack of road experience, a pedestrian may disobey a road traffic sign by crossing when it is not safe to do so. Or cross a busy road without looking left or tight to see when the road is clear.

10. Foods: It takes some time for many drivers to understand how certain foods affect their bodies. Most people eat the same foods as others. They fail to recognize that, while some people or such people will be active after eating a lot, others or themselves will feel dull and sleepy after eating a lot, endangering their lives and property while driving.



features of road transportation The negative impact of a road accident on society has already been discussed. Some other negative consequences should be mentioned. Road accidents have serious consequences on those who are involved. A nation’s economic and social well-being suffers as a result. The effects on the economy are usually in the form of costs, which can be measured under certain conditions. Some of these costs are private in nature, borne by those responsible for the accident, while others are social in nature, borne by society as a whole. The study investigates the specific effects of road accidents in this section.

1. Traffic backup and associated waste: The most visible effect of an accident is a rapidly accumulating traffic backup. Fuel is wasted in the process, and engines are damaged.

Overheating causes delays, which result in lost business and social opportunities. The direct result is reduced and expanded business transactions.

2. Motor vehicle destruction: Most road accidents result in the total destruction of the motor vehicle involved. In some cases, the vehicles are salvaged at a high cost to the owners. Accidental vehicles in Nigeria are either left at the scene of the accident indefinitely or towed away to police stations, where they are similarly abandoned. The implication of this practice is that the scrap value of such a vehicle is significant to the economy, and the stock of transportation, facilities required to move people and goods from one location to another is reduced. Opportunities to realize gains from within integrated economic systems are lost, and welfare suffers.

The number of citizens previously mentioned has decreased. The economic cost of traffic accidents is easily quantifiable.

3. Transport infrastructure destruction: Accidents destroy valuable road transport infrastructure, the replacement of which would cost multiples of the original capital expenditure. These costs are significantly inflated by the importation of foreign currency. Transportation infrastructure components that may be damaged include:

ii. Highways

Bridges II

iii. Culverts and so on

As a result, capital reduction rather than capital accumulation occurs.

4. Destruction of other infrastructure:Road accidents also destroy other infrastructure such as telecommunication poles and wires, electricity poles and transformers, real estate including residential and office buildings. Damage to these infrastructure disrupt electricity supply, telecommunications services and normal office facilities; all these tend to show down normal economic and social transactions with adverse consequences

of citizens previously mentioned is reduced. The economic cost of road accidents is easily quantifiable.

3. Transport infrastructure destruction: Accidents destroy valuable road transport infrastructure, whose replacement would cost multiples of the original capital expenditure. Foreign exchange is used to cover these costs. Transport infrastructure components that may be damaged include:

i. Roads

ii. Bridges

iii. Culverts, etc.

As a result, instead of capital accumulation, capital is reduced.

4. Destruction of other infrastructure: Road accidents also destroy other infrastructure such as telecommunication poles and wires, electricity poles and transformers, and real estate such as residential and office buildings. Damage to these infrastructure disrupt electricity supply, telecommunications services and normal office facilities; all these tend to show down normal economic and social transactions with adverse consequences of road accidents. Treatment in orthopedic hospitals is time-consuming and costly; after discharge, patients’ ability to perform duties is usually reduced. This has a negative impact on economic production.


The primary goals of this project are as follows:

1. Determine the causes of road accidents in Enugu and compare the resulting fatalities/deaths.

2. Determine whether the causes of the road accident are unrelated to vehicles.

3. Determine whether there is a seasonal pattern of road accident occurrence and trend, as well as compare the number of cases.

4. Determine the trend of road accidents over the years.

5. Make recommendations to the Enugu State Government, the institutions responsible for traffic management and law enforcement within the geopolitical entity, and road users on ways to reduce road accidents.


Because of the following constraints, the scope of this study is limited to Enugu Rural Urban Areas (Enugu State).

1. The time available for this research work is limited in order to cover other states.

2. The available resources were insufficient to broaden the scope.


This research would benefit the government, the general public, the Nigerian Police Force, the Federal Road Safety Commission, and other organizations concerned with road safety in the following ways:

1. It will assist the Federal Road Safety Commission and other authorities with similar responsibilities in evaluating their performance over time.

2. It will assist the federal and state governments, particularly Enugu State, in developing policies on road transportation and safety, which will serve as the foundation for planning the socioeconomic infrastructure required to ensure safety and improve the performance of road users.

3. It will assist the Federal Road Safety Commission and other institutions involved in organizing sensitization workshops on seminar programs for road users in determining the positive impact of such workshops.

or a seminar is being planned.

4. It will instill a sense of responsibility in both road users and the government.

5. It will help reduce or eliminate the ill attitude displayed by some law enforcement agencies (the Nigerian Police N20 syndrome), which is impeding the reduction of road accidents.


The data for this project were gathered internally and in secondary form. Secondary data refers to statistical materials or information that were not created or obtained by the investigator, but were obtained from someone else’s record or published source, such as the central bank, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations such as universities, research institutes, and so on. However, the data was provided by the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) Enugu Division and the Federal Road Safety Commission, Enugu Sector Command.


The difficulties encountered during data collection are too numerous to list here. This research project presented numerous challenges. Because the researcher did not collect the data initially, there was mistrust between the primary and secondary users of the data. It cost me a lot of money, time, and energy to travel from my destination to the offices of the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) and the Federal Road Safety Commission, both of which are in Enugu, in order to obtain the necessary data for this research project. This caused me to miss the majority of my lecture hours and disappointed my supervisor, Mr. Pius Ugwu, by failing to appear when I promised to see him several times.

It was extremely difficult to gather the relevant data from these offices because they claimed they couldn’t release the information for security reasons. However, after presenting letters from my Department Head, Mr. Nwagbara G.P., dated July 4, 2005, I was given the desired information.


Leave a Comment