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Simeon Danladi Midenda founded the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) in 1992 to tackle armed robbery and other violent crimes. Until the anti-robbery unit was founded as a separate agency in 1992 to conduct criminal investigations and other defined functions, the Nigeria Police Force was in charge of the anti-robbery task.

The death of Colonel Israel Rindam (Nigerian Army) by police officers at a checkpoint in Lagos in September 1992 sparked the foundation of SARS. This scenario prompted police officers to strike as they withdrew from checkpoints, security sites, and other potential targets for criminals; some officers reportedly quit, while others fled for their lives (Iheancho 2003). The crime rate soared during the two-week absence of police. SARS was founded in response, with an initial unit of fifteen men and two Peugeot station wagons, and has grown since then. SARS officers who were combat-ready operated covertly in plain clothing and plain vehicles without any security or government markings in the early days of the unit.

SARS was only active in Lagos for ten years, but by 2002, it had spread to all 36 states of the federation as well as Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory. It was one of the Nigerian Police Force’s Criminal Investigation and Intelligence Department’s 14 units (Deleke 2003). Its mission was to apprehend, investigate, and prosecute suspected armed robbers, murders, kidnappers, hired assassins, and other violent offenders (Frank 2008).

With its newfound strength, the unit abandoned its primary mission of carrying out covert operations and began setting up obstacles to extort money from residents. They stayed in civilian clothes but carried weapons in public at the time (Joe U.D 2015).

Over time, the squad was linked to a slew of human rights violations, including extrajudicial killings, torture, arbitrary detention, and extortion. As a result of these brutal, callous, and devilish actions, a demonstration advocating for its dissolution erupted (Ade 2020).

Protest is a means for the weak to exert influence over the ruling authorities (Adekunle 2007). Other forms of influence, such as political parties (legislation) and legal advocacy before the courts, complement protest. Public protest, according to Zagard (1996), is a non-institutional form of attempting to influence the government. Protests, according to Chukwudi (2003), send messages and possess symbolic content. As a result, its goal is to make a claim or voice a complaint. A protest can be defined in a broader sense.

Furthermore, the Nigerian EndSars demonstration began as a nonviolent expression of dissatisfaction with the Nigerian Police’s Special Anti-Robbery Squad unit’s appalling brutality against Nigerian youths on October 13, 2020. According to Ifeanyi Okowa, the demonstration was a result of leadership failure (Delta State Governor). The social movement began as a peaceful and well-organized demonstration before turning bloody and violent as it spread throughout six Nigerian states. As a result of the escalation of this dreadful violent situation, protesters, armed officers, and property were massacred and assassinated. As a result, the primary goal of this research is to explore and assess the impact of the post-EndSars protest.

Statement Of The Problem

The nonviolent EndSars demonstration took on a new dimension when it became violent, pernicious, obnoxiously harsh, and bloody. Furthermore, the incident resulted in the loss of human lives, as well as the destruction and burning of private and public property in various Nigerian cities. This is in response to the shootings of unarmed demonstrators by some Nigerian Army and Police forces. As a result, hoodlums have destroyed property across Nigeria’s states. These possibilities necessitated this research.

Purpose Of The Study

The impact of the post-EndSars protest on human lives and property in Nigeria is investigated in this study. Other specific goals include the following:

  1. To find out how citizens were affected by armed police officers firing at unarmed peaceful protesters.
  2. Conduct a review of the states where the post-endars protest resulted in destruction and the loss of human life.
  3. To find out what kind of property was destroyed during the post-endars protest.

Research Questions

  1. What impact has the post-EndSars protest had on Nigerian lives and property?
  2. How did residents react to armed police officers shooting at armless nonviolent protesters?
  3. What states were affected by the post-endars protest, and how many people were killed?
  4. During the dangerous protest, what types of properties were burned and destroyed?
  5. What was the reaction of Nigerian youths to armed police officers shooting people in the street during a protest?

Significance Of The Study

Every component of this research will be extremely useful to the Nigerian government and police force, as it reveals the consequences of mistreatment of citizens whose fate is in their hands. And the government will undoubtedly benefit from the study’s advice on how to handle citizen mass protests. This study also will serve as an academic material to students, researchers and the general public.

Scope Of The Study

The purpose of this research is to look into the impact of the post-election protests in Nigeria on human lives and property. As a result of the country’s size, this study is confined to residents of Lagos State, Nigeria.

Limitations Of The Study

Insufficient funds, time, and the lack of relevant materials in this research area were the key constraints that the researcher faced while conducting this research.

Definition Of Terms

SARS stands for Special Anti-Robbery Squad in full. It is a Nigeria Police Force department that was established in 1992.

EndSars is a decentralized social movement in Nigeria that consists of a series of mass rallies against police brutality.

A protest is a public display of opposition, dissatisfaction, or dissent against a concept or action, usually one that is political. Individual speeches to huge marches, protests can take many different shapes.

Excessive and unjustified use of force by law enforcement is known as police brutality. It is a civil rights violation and an extreme type of police misbehavior or assault. It also refers to when officers use excessive or unjustified force on a person.

Massacre: A massacre is when a group of political actors kills a large number of people. It is usually considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated against defenseless victims.



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