To determine the eutrophication profile and draw logical conclusions about the fate of the surface water system in the near future, the levels of several nutrient elements in Abuja’s surface water were investigated over a period of 6 months. Conducted monthly over a six-month period from May to March, standard methods were used to measure several nutrients that represent indicators of eutrophication. The results showed high microbial activity. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed high contamination levels that varied with time and water flow rate. Other parameters examined were chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, algae count, temperature, pH, phosphate and potassium concentrations. Maximum and minimum values ​​of several eutrophication parameters at the site were recorded as follows.
BOD (Orozo 38 mg/L – 7.37 mg/L, Guidan Mangoro 31.2 mg/L – 5.08 mg/L, Nyanya 32.4 mg/L – 10.05 mg/L, Use 40.30 mg/L – 7.007 mg/L, Jabi 26.50 mg /L-3.10 mg/L). Similarly, the maximum and minimum total dissolved solids values ​​at the site were 1222 mg/L – 105.1 mg/L for Orozo, 861.0 mg/L – 148.8 mg/L for Guidan Mangoro and 676.0 mg/L – 127.6 mg for Nyanya. It has been decided. /L, Wuse 200.0 mg display /L-86.2 mg/L, Jabi 846.0 mg/L-151.8 mg/L. These results provide an indication of eutrophication in the Abuja surface water system. Results showed that nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations could significantly exceed compensation levels due to population growth in the Abuja metropolitan area.

chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Eutrophication is the natural process by which confined bodies of water (such as lakes and dams) deteriorate over time due to the accumulation of silt and organic matter in the lake (Ademoroti, 1996). Young lakes are characterized by low nutrient levels and consequently low plant productivity and are called oligotrophic (oligotrophic) lakes at this stage. Water bodies progressively receive mineral and organic nutrients from catchment areas that promote aquatic growth and increased bioproductivity, and decompose lakes with organic matter and phytoplankton. Water bodies are said to be eutrophic (rich in nutrients), and as a result, decaying organic matter uses up available oxygen.As accumulation of silt and organic matter increases, water bodies become shallower and sunlight slowly sinks to the bottom. It penetrates, the water warms up. Plants take root in shallow water, and lakes can slowly transform into marshes and marshes, eventually leading to dry land (Ademoroti, 1996). Anthropogenic influences and seasonal climate change are increasing the eutrophication of water bodies around the world. Advances in science and innovation in agriculture have led to increased agricultural use of natural and synthetic fertilizers rich in phosphorus, potassium and calcium. These have accelerated the natural process of eutrophication around the world. Countries around the world, aware of the famous Malthusian economic theory, are fighting this damaging prediction by building dams for irrigation and energy to increase food production. Dry zone countries are also striving to protect existing water resources, to meet growing food demands through reservoirs, in order to store and use this valuable resource more efficiently. Such reservoirs and lakes are subject to various types of degradation and loss due to evaporation, inefficient storage and consumer waste, in addition to the growth of all types of aquatic organisms such as plankton, insects, fish and angiosperms. These changes lead to the phenomenon of eutrophication (Rashid and Anjum, 1985).

Eutrophication therefore leads to a progressive deterioration of water quality, especially in lakes due to lush vegetation, which impairs the overall metabolism of water (Richard, 1970).

A study by Rashid and Anjum (1985) showed the existence of Euglena, Oscillatorian, and Anabaena species. It shows high levels of organic pollution leading to eutrophication, which affects macroinvertebrate and macroinvertebrate species, including aquatic fish species. It turns out that the predatory species Notopterus notopterus is slowly increasing, threatening the survival of beneficial fish in the waters. Eutrophication therefore adversely affects crop production, fish farming and drinking water supply.

Eutrophic water bodies receive large amounts of aquatic plant nutrients relative to their surface area and volume, and produce high levels of aquatic plant production (Fred and Ann, 1978). Oligotrophic waters tend to be less fertile and produce less aquatic plants, whereas mesotrophic waters receive moderate amounts of aquatic phytonutrients.

Thermocline is a term used to describe the depth of a body of water where temperature changes rapidly with depth because the body of water is subdivided into strata of different densities (Fred and Ann 1978). These are the Epilymnion, which describes warm, less dense surface waters, and the Hypolymnion, which describes colder, denser groundwaters. The thermocline forms a barrier to the mixing of water between these two layers and usually he is present in temperate waters from early June to October (Fred and Ann 1978). During this thermal stratification, the water of the hypolimnion is isolated from the atmosphere by the thermocline and cannot replenish its oxygen. The algae that were growing in the area died and decomposed, depleting the bottom oxygen. In many eutrophic waters, this depletion is sufficient to cause anoxia (zero dissolved oxygen) in hyposaline waters (Fred and Ann 1978; Muir, 2001).

The Jordan River, currently the largest and longest river flowing into Israel, has been found to be endangered due to eutrophication. Israel’s major rivers are being polluted by agricultural and industrial waste, making the Jordan River the only natural clean river in the country, so there is no proper way to keep the water alive for use and consumption. measures have been taken (Shoshana, 2012). The biodiversity of upper Jordanian algal communities shaped by natural climate and anthropogenic influences was used to predict catastrophic outcomes. 1.1 Causes of eutrophication

1.1.1 Natural resources

Eutrophication can also be described as the process of fertilizing natural water bodies (Fred and Ann, 1978). There are no places in Abuja where eutrophication is described as algal blooms. However, drastic environmental measures will need to be taken to prevent its occurrence in the near future. Aquatic plants or processes that favor aquatic plant growth can lead to eutrophication. Nutrients required for plant growth include sulfur, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc and copper. The main nutrients that plants need are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrate nitrogen is most commonly derived from urea. When urea is excreted by animals, it rapidly hydrolyzes to form ammonia, which is processed by the bacterium Nitrosomonas and oxidized to form nitrite. Another bacterium called Nitrobacter oxidizes nitrite to nitrate, which can be used as a plant nutrient (Ademoroti, 1996). The triple bond N≡N of nitrogen, which exists as N2 in the atmosphere, is broken by thunderstorms and becomes water soluble when it rains, all of which form the natural process of nitrogen fixation in soil. can be leached

hydrolysis of urea

NH2CONH2 + H2O → 2NH3 + CO2

Oxidation of ammonia by nitrosomonas.

55NH3 + 76O2 + 5CO2 → C5H7NO2 + 54NO–2 + 52H2O + 54H+ (bacterial cells)

Oxidation of nitrite by Nitrobacter.

400NO–2 + 195O2 + 5CO2 + NH3 + 2H2O → C5H7NO2 + 400NO–3 (bacterial cell)

Other natural sources leading to eutrophication are rock weathering and erosion. Erosion can bring phytonutrients such as calcium and phosphorus in clays, silts, and suspensions into water bodies for eutrophication (Lathrop et al. 1998). Therefore, the availability of nutrients in the environment also depends on the terrain (Likens, 1972). 1.1.2 Anthropogenic

domestic activities

Human activity, both in urban and rural areas, has reduced phytonutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium through improper disposal of urea-rich faecal and urinary excreta, food waste and other municipal waste. The use of branched-chain hydrocarbon detergents is not degraded by bacteria, leading to the death of aquatic animals and subsequent nitrogen enrichment of water bodies. Using detergents containing optical brighteners for the aesthetic beauty of clothing enriches the aquatic environment with nitrogen. This is because these optical brighteners and perfumes often contain the chromophore structure -N=N-, which improves redshift and desirable color properties (Ababio, 1990).

agricultural customs

Human agricultural practices such as the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers have resulted in an increase in phytonutrients, resulting in the phenomenon of eutrophication. Agricultural runoff from irrigated farms and leaching of fertilizers into water bodies greatly increased these nutrients and promoted algal growth (Lathrop, 1998). Nutrients from agricultural systems can contaminate natural water bodies through runoff, soil erosion, animal waste and soil water, mobilizing these nutrients and promoting eutrophication (Eckert 1995; Gimba, 2011).

industrial field

Developing countries around the world are turning to industrialization to improve their economies and living standards. This trend has resulted in the production and release of various pollutants into the water environment. The fertilizer industry, detergent industry, food industry, etc. produce large amounts of waste that end up in lakes, streams, rivers or even directly into urban sewage systems (Weibel, 1970&# 41;

1.2 Problem definition

Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja’s increasing population density has increased the discharge of household and industrial waste into water bodies. This can lead to eutrophication and will require continued monitoring for strategic planning in the FCT. 1.4 Objectives and Objectives

The purpose of this research work is the evaluation of eutrophication parameters for surface waters in Abuja.

Goals include, among others:

Determination of physico-chemical parameters of surface waters in selected locations.


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