ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION IN THE CONTROL OF MALARIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND  OF THE STUDY

Malaria remains a major public health issue, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Malaria transmission in Nigeria is alarmingly high, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), with more than 76% of the population reporting more than one case per 1,000 people each year. Between 2000 and 2015, the projected incidence of malaria decreased by less than half. Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo account for more than 35% of all malaria deaths worldwide.

Malaria is caused primarily by protozoa (Plasmodium species) and is spread by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito (Mwangangi et al., 2013). Human malaria is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the tropics and subtropics (Ahmad et al., 2011). Statistics that are available

Malaria is highly endemic in Nigeria, with over 90% of the population at risk of infection. It is the leading cause of outpatient consultation for 60% of all age groups, and at least half of the Nigerian population is exposed to at least one malaria attack each year (Idowu J., 2012).

To reduce the spread of malaria parasites, an integrative approach has been recommended. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) is one such strategy or approach that employs a combination of biological and chemical methods. It aims to improve ecological soundness and sustainability for vector-borne disease control, as well as efficacy and cost effectiveness (Zacchaeus and Amadi, 2012). Researchers examine the agent, host, and environment from three perspectives.

By focusing on the environment, scientists have encouraged the source reduction, elimination, and eradication of mosquito breeding sites. These are necessary because the proliferation of mosquitos perpetuates the transmission of malaria. As a result, it can be hypothesized that if mosquito breeding sites are eradicated or eliminated, malaria will be drastically reduced. This implies that good environmental sanitation practices could help reduce malaria transmission, promote health, and improve people’s quality of life.

The modern definition of environment encompasses not only water, air, and soil, but also the social and economic conditions in which we live (Park, 2011). The environment is largely responsible for man’s health. Indeed, much of man’s ill-health can be attributed to environmental factors.

Water, soil, and air pollution, poor housing conditions, the presence of animal reservoirs, and insect vectors of diseases all pose health risks to humans. Man is frequently to blame for environmental pollution caused by urbanization, industrialization, and other human activities.

The National Sanitation Foundation of the United States defines sanitation as a “„way of life that is expressed in the clean home, farm, business, neighborhoods, and community” (Park, 2011). Furthermore, sanitation is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces (UNICEF AND WHO, 2012).

Environmental hazards are responsible for roughly a quarter of the global disease burden, and up to 30% in some regions.

environmental issues such as contaminated water and air pollution (WHO, 2010). The country’s poor food sanitation has been shown to play a significant role in the etiology of food-borne diseases. Diarrhea is one of the most serious diseases caused by poor sanitation. Every year, between 1.6 and 2.5 million people die as a result of diarrhea (WHO, 2012). According to national data, approximately 600,000 episodes of diarrhoea occur in children under the age of five each year (Alabi, 2010).

Similarly, the number of cases of cholera has increased over time. Nigeria reported 41,787 cases, including 1,716 deaths, from 222 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in 18 States between January and December 2010.

Borno, Bauchi, and Katsina were the most affected states. In addition to the disease burden, Nigeria loses about N455 billion per year, or 1.3% of its GDP, due to poor sanitation, according to the World Bank’s water and sanitation program (Vanguard 2013). The majority of those affected are young children under the age of five. Schistosomiasis, trachoma, soil-transmitted helminthiases, and malaria are among the other diseases caused by poor sanitation (WHO, 2013).

The provision of safe drinking water and sanitation is an important component of public health care. However, fecal matter deposition near homes, contamination of drinking water sources (sometimes caused by a poorly designed or maintained sewage system), dumping of refuse and sweeping into gutters, defecating

Borno, Bauchi, and Katsina were the most affected states. In addition to the disease burden, Nigeria loses about N455 billion per year, or 1.3% of its GDP, due to poor sanitation, according to the World Bank’s water and sanitation program (Vanguard 2013). The majority of those affected are young children under the age of five. Schistosomiasis, trachoma, soil-transmitted helminthiases, and malaria are among the other diseases caused by poor sanitation (WHO, 2013).

The provision of safe drinking water and sanitation is an important component of public health care. However, fecal matter deposition near homes, contamination of drinking water sources (sometimes caused by a poorly designed or maintained sewage system), dumping of refuse and sweeping into gutters, defecating and disposing of feces by street corners and waterways, as well as selling food and cooked food by the roadside, are all unwholesome practices that pose a risk of disease development. The quantity of water is just as important as the quality of water. Hand washing after defecation and before preparing food is especially important in reducing disease transmission, as evidenced by Nigeria’s recent control of Ebola Viral Disease. Poor housing also contributes to poor environmental health, which has an impact on the health of city dwellers. The majority of cholera prevention measures focus on providing clean water and proper sanitation to populations who do not yet have access to basic services. Health education and good food hygiene are both important. Diseases caused by poor sanitation exacerbate poverty by lowering productivity and household income. Furthermore, the national cost of lost productivity, reduced educational potential, and enormous curative health costs is a significant drain on the local and national economies. Furthermore, a dirty environment with its attendant health consequences, which prevails in most of our cities, can discourage tourists/investors and undermine the country’s economic benefit from tourism. As a result, broad-based solutions are required to address Environmental Sanitation issues in order to mitigate and avoid negative health, economic, and developmental consequences.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease around the world, and improving sanitation has been shown to have a significant positive impact on health in both households and communities. Sanitation also refers to the upkeep of sanitary conditions via services such as garbage collection and waste-water disposal. Furthermore, environmental sanitation, according to the World Health Organization, is the control of all those factors in man’s physical environment that have or may have a negative impact on his physical development, health, and survival. It can also be defined as the principle and practice of creating healthy and sanitary conditions in the environment in order to promote public health and welfare, improve quality of life, and ensure a sustainable environment (Alabi, 2010). The necessary elements of environmental sanitation

include solid waste management, medical waste management, excreta and sewage management, food sanitation, sanitary inspection of premises, market and abattoir sanitation, adequate potable water supply, school sanitation, pest and vector control, urban drainage management, control of reared and stray animals, disposal of dead animals, weed and vegetation control, and hygiene education and promotion.

Most developing countries have not strictly enforced adequate environmental sanitation. Living with waste as part of the natural environment, for example, has become a way of life in some parts of Nigeria. Although there has been a significant improvement since the late 1980s/early 1990s, there is still much work to be done in Lagos, our “Nigerian Centre of Excellence.” a massive slum (Alabi, 2010). Slum is often used to refer to marginalized neighborhoods in the United States, but in developing countries, it usually refers to a settlement built in or near a city by residents without official authorization or regulation. Such housing units are typically of poor quality, with infrastructure and services ranging from non-existent to improvised. As a result, the study focuses on determining the effectiveness of environmental sanitation in malaria control in the Abeokuta metropolis.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY     

The overall goal is to assess the effectiveness of environmental sanitation in malaria control using the Abeokuta metropolis as a case study. The specific goals are as follows:

1. Determine whether Abeokuta metropolis residents are aware of the consequences of indiscriminate waste disposal in their environment.

2. Determine the level of efficiency in waste control and management in the Abeokuta metropolitan area.

3. Determine the prevalence of malaria infection among Abeokuta metropolis residents.

4. Determine whether Abeokuta metropolis residents practice effective environmental sanitation.

5. To investigate the impact of environmental sanitation on the spread of malaria among Abeokuta residents.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following are the pertinent research questions for this study:

1. Are Abeokuta metropolis residents aware of the consequences of indiscriminate waste disposal in their environment?

2. What is the level of efficiency in waste control and management in the Abeokuta metropolitan area?

3. What is the prevalence of malaria infection among Abeokuta residents?

4. Do the people of Abeokuta metropolis practice effective environmental sanitation?

5. What effect does environmental sanitation have on the spread of malaria among Abeokuta metropolis residents?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

Given the importance of the environment in malaria control and prevention, the purpose of this study was to evaluate environmental sanitation practices in the Abeokuta metropolis. The study’s findings are also important to the government because they highlight the need for the government to implement an effective waste management and control scheme.

This research will add to the body of literature by considering areas of the literature that have not yet been examined or considered and incorporating these factors into the current study. As a result, the study will serve as the foundation for future research in the field.

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is limited to determining the effectiveness of environmental sanitation in malaria control. Due to financial and time constraints

 

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