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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Unquestionably, the Fulani are an important part of Nigeria’s economy. They are the primary breeders of goats, sheep, and cattle, as these animals represent Nigerians’ primary source of meat and an inexpensive source of animal proteins.

Fula people, also known as Fulani, are a large group of people found throughout Africa, but especially in West Africa. The Fulani are Middle Eastern and North African descendants. However, the Fulani origins can be traced back to the Berbers of North Africa in the 8th or 11th centuries AD (Anter, 2015). Between AD 900 and 1900, they spread throughout most of West Africa and some sections of Central Africa (Anter, 2015). Muslims made up the majority of the Fulani immigration. There were revolts between the Fulani and the local community inhabitants in the early 18th century. The Fulani people are mostly nomadic, herding sheep, goats, and cattle over the dry grasslands of their surroundings, making them the world’s largest pastoral nomadic clan. Fulbe Gombe, Fulbe Adamawa, Fulbe Sokoto, Fulbe Mbororo, and Fulbe Borgu are the primary Fulani subgroups in Nigeria (Kasarachi, 2016).

The Fulani control approximately 90% of the cattle population, accounting for one-third of agricultural GDP and 3.2 percent of Nigeria’s total GDP (Fabiyi & Otunuga, 2016). During the dry season, Fulani herdsmen frequently migrate their livestock from one location to another in search of grazing space. When light-skinned Fulani herders migrate, they are frequently accompanied by their dark-skinned sedentary cousins (urban or town Fulani), who are better educated, more dynamic politicians, and more ardent and versed Muslims than the former. When the herders face local opposition to their encroachments, the sedentaries supply the necessary political and military plan for resistance, and when the sedentaries feel the need for socio-religious cleansing (a jihad), the herdsmen give the necessary political and military strategy.

However, Fulani herders settled in fertile areas to rear their cattle in the majority of cases, and as migration was forced by economic and socio-political considerations, tensions between herders and their host groups (farmers) grew.

Every year, Fulani herders claim the lives of many Nigerians, as well as their properties, farmlands, and harvests. The confrontations between Fulani herders and farmers arose as a result of Fulani herders encroaching on farmers’ land.

Statement Of The Problem

Nigeria is facing a serious internal and security challenge with political, economic, and environmental implications. Each of these elements has had a significant impact on the country’s stability, and may be related to a variety of reasons, one of which appears to be the Fulani-herdsmen. The pillaging, raping, killing, and kidnapping by so-called Fulani herdsmen is the most concerning aspect of the current situation. On a daily basis, stories appear in national dailies about how these shepherds utilize sophisticated assault firearms like the AK-47 to systematically target many neighborhoods and houses. Most communities have been displaced from their farmlands and have lost their main source of livelihood as a result of recent Fulani herdsmen and farmers clashes. The Fulani herders always have their way, putting the farmers at their mercy, and this is becoming unbearable. Herders blame the crisis on religious differences, which result in the slaughter of their cows, while farmers perceive the herders as a threat to their crops and agricultural output since the herders let their cows to graze on the farmer’s crops. However, the tolls continue to rise, and Fulani herdsmen’s actions continue to disrupt community settlement.

Objective Of The Study

The goal of this research is to objectively evaluate the impact of Fulani herders banditry on community settlement. It is specifically targeted at:

  1. To investigate the effects of Fulani herders banditry on community settlement.
  2. To find out how Fulani herdsmen’s actions affect community residents.
  3. To determine the extent to which Fulani herders banditry affects community members and settlements.

Significance Of The Study

This study will inform Nigerian public security agents about the importance of being exposed (via periodic training) to globally tenable counter-banditry best practices and know-how in order to improve their operational effectiveness in countering violent crimes and activities in general. It will raise government awareness of the need to develop viable and implementable measures to stop the attacks on the common man and improve their living conditions. It will educate community members on the importance of being security conscious and preparing other self-defense mechanisms in the event that government enforcement authorities do not respond quickly. Finally, the research will add to the larger body of knowledge.

Scope Of The Study

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of Fulani herdsmen banditry on community settlement. It will look into the effects of Fulani herders banditry on community settlement in particular. It will look into the effects of Fulani herdsmen’s actions on local residents. It will look at how much Fulani herdsmen banditry is affecting community members and settlements. However the study is delimited to selected local government in Ogun State.

Research Hypotheses

H0: The operations of Fulani herdsmen bandits have no effect on community settlement.

H0: The impact of Fulani herders banditry on community settlement is minimal.

Limitation Of The Study

Financial constraints – A lack of funds impedes the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data gathering procedure (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint: The researcher will be working on this subject while also doing other academic tasks. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Operational Definitions

Implication is the result of an activity or the conclusion that may be made from something even if it is not expressed directly.

Outlaws commit banditry, which is a sort of organized crime that usually involves the threat or use of violence. A bandit is a person who engages in banditry and commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either individually or in gangs.

Fulani Herders: Fulani herders, also known as Fulani pastoralists, are nomadic or semi-nomadic Fulani people who raise livestock as their primary occupation.

The residents of a village are grouped into a cooperative in a communal settlement.

It is a collection of people who live in the same area or have a shared quality.

 

 

 

 

 

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