Background of the Study

As children grow and develop, they undergo physical changes. These changes usher them into adolescence. Adolescence is a developmental stage that occurs between childhood and adulthood and is marked by biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes (Grabber; Brooks-Gunn & Peterson, 1996). Adolescence is a particularly difficult period. This corresponds to what Pector (2004) describes as a difficult period of rapid physical, mental, and social growth. Adolescence, in other words, is a period of rapid and significant change in physical, mental, and social development. It is a transitional period characterized by significant biological, social, emotional, and cognitive changes that occur extremely quickly over a relatively short period of time (Smith, 1998).

Adolescence has always been regarded as a critical stage in human development. Adolescence is portrayed as a time of transition.

Storm and stress are prevalent in popular discourse, plays, films, drama, and novels, particularly in a technologically advanced world (Nwachukwu, 2002). In Nigeria, adolescents are commonly referred to as youths. According to Ibeh (1990), teenagers in Nigeria attend secondary schools, polytechnics, educational institutions, and universities. Many experts believe that adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and maturity (Uba, 1987; and Adesomowo, 1988). It is the period in a person’s life when physiological and psychological processes transition from puberty to adulthood.

Adolescence, according to behavioral experts such as Erikson, is a time of upheaval and stress (Nwachukwu, 2002). Puberty’s physiological changes, as well as the need for adolescents to complete developmental tasks Some of the issues that adolescents face are those imposed by society, such as the push for independence, vocational preparation, the development of a basic philosophy of life, and sexual adjustment (Nwachukwu, 1993). It is also regarded as a critical stage in psychological development, causing fundamental changes in personality. According to Lewin (1989), adolescents have a rapidly expanding life space along geographic, social, and future temporal dimensions, and they are trapped in an uncertain overlap between the responsibilities of the child and the adult. The expansion of the child’s living space in a dynamic and diverse society exposes him to numerous ambiguous or outright conflict situations that he is unprepared to handle. In other words, adolescents exhibit psychosocial difficulties such as acting-out behaviors such as violence.

Rage, arguing excessively loudly and impudently, fighting, truancy, depression, moodiness, disruptiveness, distractibility, gangsterism, and even cultism are all symptoms of rage. People are unable to deal with or even escape the conditions as a result of these issues.

Adolescents in school are students enrolled in school who are between the ages of 12 and 18. There is speculation that in-school teenagers suffering from these psychological issues may be unable to concentrate on their studies, affecting their performance. Uncertainty about one’s role, on the other hand, creates uncertainties for the adolescent, who is expected to act like an adult one moment and a child the next.

Many professionals, including (Lingren, 2001), believe that adolescence is a psychologically demanding and important age characterized by a variety of unusual behaviors. Relationships

One of the most noticeable psychological processes of adolescence is peer interaction. Children’s interaction with their peers grows as they mature and enter early adolescence, as does their attraction to peer identity. As they go through rapid physical, emotional, and social changes, adolescents begin to question adult norms and the need for parental supervision. It is reassuring for them to seek advice from peers who understand and empathize with acquaintances in similar situations. They believe that by putting their new ideas to the test with their peers, they will be less afraid of being mocked (Lingren, 2001).

A peer could be someone you look up to or someone you consider to be your age or talent level. A peer can also be a friend.

a member of the community, or even a television personality (Hardcastle, 2002). Adolescence is associated with peer pressure. Peer pressure may play a role in academic success. This may be true because when an in-school adolescent is subjected to negative peer pressure, he or she may lose sight of why he or she is in school, which will undoubtedly affect his or her academic performance. Academics recognize that a child’s peer can have an impact on success, but the magnitude of that effect, according to Kirk, has been an open question with no convincing solution (2000).

The effects that people of the same rank or age have on one another are referred to as peer pressure. Again, peer pressure is defined as an influence.

People in the same social group (such as the same age, grade, or position) exerting emotional or mental force on others to act or behave similarly to themselves (www.nation/ Peer pressure has a large influence on adolescent behavior because it represents a young person’s desire to fit in and be accepted by others. Peer pressure is defined as an emotional urge from people of the same age, grade, or position to behave similarly to themselves (

Peer pressure is a set of group dynamics in which a group with which one feels at ease may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions, or idiosyncratic preferences in order to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors ( pressure). One could argue that peer pressure exists.

is the emotional force experienced by members of the same social group as a result of the imposition of the group’s standard of attitude or behavior.

Peer pressure can have a positive impact by challenging or motivating people to do their best. When an in-school adolescent who performs poorly in academic activities joins peers who conduct group studies and read very well and emerges with a strong academic performance, such peer may have a favorable influence on his members, which is excellent peer pressure. Peer pressure can sometimes lead to actions that run counter to one’s sense of what is right and wrong. Negative peer pressure occurs when peer pressure causes someone to do something that others find objectionable. Peer pressure may exist. Joining a group that consumes alcohol and other drugs can have a variety of effects. It may also lead to the decision to have a boyfriend/girlfriend, join a group whose members are obsessed with their appearance, and loiter. Delta State students have been subjected to peer pressure. Passers-by may notice in-school youths roaming the streets, watching movies, and attending parties during school hours, as is customary. It has also been observed that among in-school classmates, children are mocked for responding or asking questions. When this happens, the adolescent develops depression, which can have an effect on his or her academic performance. Peer pressure can occur at work, school, or in society. It

People of all ages, as well as the entire community, may be affected. Peer pressure can have a variety of effects on people, but in this case, we are concerned with how it affects the academic performance of in-school teenagers. Adolescents use loitering and truancy to gain peer cleavage.

During school hours, which is harmful to academic progress. Furthermore, the desire to engage in other negative behaviors, such as drinking and smoking cigarettes, can put pressure on teenagers, affecting their academic performance. There is ongoing debate about whether in-school teenagers who are subjected to negative peer pressure perform worse academically than those who are subjected to positive peer pressure. On the other hand, this work

will elicit a genuine response.

The problem with teenagers, according to Lakein (2003), is how they manage their time. It is critical to get to know yourself in order to make sound decisions about what you want to accomplish and how to best spend your time to achieve your objectives. We all have 168 hours per week to do whatever we want; however, it appears that some people make better use of their time than others. This means that people who manage their time well do so in order to achieve the given goal, whereas people who cannot manage their time have a tendency or probability of failing to achieve their intended goal (Lakein, 2003). However, this study will provide an answer as

to whether or not peer pressure influences time management ability.

Time management entails planning and organizing activities, prioritizing tasks, allocating time to tasks in the order of importance, and assisting one in achieving goals (Achunine, 1995). Time management is the ability to manage and regulate time ( Making use of planners,

Calendars and other time management tools are useful. Routine implementation is a method of task scheduling that imposes regimens to fit a person’s flow of work and production activities. Time management offers a number of approaches that may be beneficial in increasing a person’s efficacy in getting things done. Time management is somewhat of a misnomer because time moves inexorably.

We have no control over what we do; the only thing we can control is ourselves. As a result, time management is primarily concerned with self-management. Time management can be defined as an individual’s or a group’s ability to spend their time effectively in order to achieve specific goals.

Time management is defined as behaviors that are thought to increase productivity while decreasing stress (Misra, 2000). Implementing time management strategies aids in the organization of parts of one’s life, providing time to complete all activities required to reduce stress. If a student completes his responsibilities on time and in an orderly manner, his academic performance and accomplishment will improve. Beginning major assignments far ahead of their due dates is an example of time management behavior.

breaking large assignments down into smaller ones, and completing little chores on a regular basis. Goal formulation and prioritization, the use of lists and mechanics, an orderly workplace, and the perception of time control are all helpful strategies (Misra, 2000). According to Misra, an in-school adolescent who spends his or her time on unimportant activities rather than focusing on academics may end up with poor academic achievement or failure.

The image of Delta-State students wandering around on television and in the streets suggests that they do not manage their time well. Academic performance may suffer as a result if this is the case.

The learning outcomes of a child can be described as the child’s academic performance. This includes knowledge, skills, and abilities. and concepts learned and practiced both inside and outside of the classroom during their term of study (Epunam, 1999). According to the West African Examination Council (WAEC) State Committee Meeting (2008), thirty percent (30%) of candidates obtained grades 1-6 (credit and above) in the same number of subjects (23 subjects) in 2005, 2006, and 2007. The performance ranges, however, were not the same. Performance percentages ranged from 31.76 percent to 66.47 percent in 2005, 33 percent to 53 percent in 2006, and 30.91 percent to 63.09 percent in 2007. (For more information, see Appendix G.) This investigation will determine whether or not

It is true that peer pressure and time management have an impact on performance. This is why research into the relationships between peer pressure, time management, and academic achievement of in-school Delta State teenagers is required.

Statement of the Issue

Academic performance of most secondary school students in Nigeria, including Delta State, has been declining (Atesenuwa, 2002). Both researchers and writers have proposed possible explanations for this poor performance. The findings suggest that peer pressure and time management are important factors. Teenagers are more susceptible to peer pressure because of their age, and their peers may persuade them to engage in habits such as alcohol consumption, cultism, and other undisciplined behavior that distracts from academic work. This implies that adequate time is required.

Management may be lacking, especially in Delta-State.

Some authors and experts, however, believe that teenagers are not solely influenced by negative influences. In other words, peer pressure from peers in adolescence can lead to better time management and, as a result, academic success. All of these are educated guesses that must be confirmed. Given the prevalence of peer pressure in that age group, there is a need to investigate the relationship that exists between teenagers’ peer pressure, time management techniques, and academic success. As a result, this study asks, “How does academic achievement of in-school teenagers relate to time management and peer pressure?

The Goal of the Research

In general, the study sought to investigate the connections between peer pressure, time management, and academic performance of students.

Delta State adolescent students.

The study’s specific goals are as follows:

(1)Determine the levels of peer pressure and time management among adolescents in school.

(2) Evaluate the academic performance of adolescents in school.

(3) Determine the prevalence of peer pressure and time management practices among male and female high school students.

(4) Determine the connection between peer pressure and time management.

(5) Determine the connection between peer pressure and academic performance.

(6) Discover the link between time management and academic performance.

Research Issues

(1) What are the levels of peer pressure and time management among adolescents in school?

(2) How do in-school adolescents perform academically?

(3) What is the prevalence of male and female peer pressure and time management practices in school adolescents?

(4) What is the peer relationship?

Time management and pressure?

(5) What relationship exists between peer pressure and academic performance?

(6) What relationship exists between time management and academic performance?

The Importance of the Research

Counsellors, society, schools, and researchers will all benefit greatly from the research.

To counsellors: It is hoped that the study’s findings will provide a foundation for counsellors to re-orientate in-school adolescents in basic time management and peer pressure resistance, formally engraining discipline in school. There will be sanity, peace, and order once this is completed.

This will improve the moral tone of both the school and society. Furthermore, professional counsellors who work with behavior modification will benefit from this study because it will generate

Concerns about modifying negative peer pressure.

Classroom teachers will also benefit from the study’s findings because they will help them understand what is expected of them in their role as character molders.

When in-school adolescents are disciplined in accordance with the findings of this study, society automatically becomes disciplined, and academic performance improves. The study’s findings will directly lead to an increase in our educational standards because research has shown that disciplined students learn faster and achieve better academically than undisciplined students. In other words, the findings of this study will assist the school in producing students who can contribute meaningfully to the nation’s development in the near future.

The findings and recommendations of

The study could contribute to the pool of available data in the field, which future researchers could use as a foundation for future research. Finally, the work’s results will be made public by organizing conferences, workshops, and seminars to inform them of the findings. This will help sensitize in-school adolescents to the benefits of good peer groups and time management, allowing them to devote more time to their studies and achieve excellent academic performance.

In terms of theory, the work will most likely contribute to a better understanding of the application of Bandura’s learning theory in terms of usability to adolescents in Nigerian settings.

The Study’s Scope

This study is restricted to adolescents who are still in school.

Delta State University. The study looks into the relationships between peer pressure, time management, and academic performance among in-school adolescents. This study’s in-school adolescents include both males and females in senior secondary two (SS2 students).

Academic performance is limited to students’ average core subject scores in the second (2nd) term examination (See Appendix F).


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