ELUCIDATION OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL NATURE OF THE LEAVES OF SENNA MIMOSOIDES

ABSTRACT

The aqueous extract of Senna mimosoides leaves’ phytochemical makeup, immunomodulatory, leukocyte mobilization, haematological, and antihepatotoxic effects were assessed in the current study. The study also examined how the extract affected lactase activity, evaluated the harm caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and examined how the extract improved the condition of liver tissue using histopathological methods. By defining its immunological and biochemical nature, this study aimed to validate the traditional use of S. mimosoides leaves in folklore medicine to treat breast milk toxicity in neonates. There were 2.67 0.0013 mg of flavonoids, 3.43 0.0028 mg of alkaloids, 1.97 0.0030 mg of saponin, 2.32 0.0032 mg of terpenoids, and 0.86 0.0023 mg of steroid, according to the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical composition. For every 100 g of the extract, there were 3.61 0.0025 mg of phenol, 8.31 0.0032 mg of reducing sugar, 4.75 0.0034 mg of tannin, 1.61 0.0031 mg of cyanide, 2.75 0.0029 mg of glycoside, and 4.68 0.0033 mg of soluble carbohydrates. A total of 130 albino rats were used in the animal model experiment. The experimental design was broken down into four phases, each with five groups of five rats. Rats in group A were given 0.2 ml of normal saline as the control, while rats in groups B, C, and D were given 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of S. mimosoides leaves, respectively. Rats in group E were given levamisol or silymarin (standard medications), while rats in group F received an unknown substance. were only given carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. A dose-dependent significant (p 0.05) increase in primary antibody titre with a value of 6, 8, and 13 and secondary antibody titre with a value of 11, 26, and 34 was observed following administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg. Rats’ footpad swelling increased with the extract in a dose- and time-dependent manner, according to the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The extract (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg) and levamisol (25 mg/kg) significantly (p 0.05) boosted DTH reactions at 24 hours after challenge, as measured by differences in footpad thickness of 1.412, 1.504, 1.816, and 1.827 mm before challenge and 24 hours after challenge, respectively. The control revealed a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase with a difference of 0.614.

mm. An additional increase in footpad swelling was seen 48 hours after the challenge, measuring 1.908, 1.918, 2.304, and 2.326 mm for the extract and levamisol, respectively. The humoural antibody (HA) titre and DTH response are comparable to those of the immunostimulant levamisol, a standard dosage of 25 mg/kg. While the group given indomethacin experienced a significantly (p 0.05) lower total leukocyte count when compared to the control group, the groups treated with various concentrations of extract experienced a dose-dependent increase in leukocyte count. For group B, the percentage packed cell volume (PCV) was 38.8 1.30, 19.4 0.55, and 34.4 before and after treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) and later with (50 mg/kg).

respectively, 0.55. The trend was similar in Groups C, D, and E, but decreased in the control group. by CP wasn’t undone. The percentage PCV prior to, following, and following extract in the control was 35.8 0.45, 19.4 0.55, and 19.8 1.09, respectively. The haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, red blood cell count, and its indices all showed the same trend. After receiving CCl4, rats in group F had higher serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity than the healthy control group A (53.00 1.00 IU/L) (81.20 0.84 IU/L). The activity of ALT was decreased significantly (p 0.05) by the extract (50, 100, 250 mg/kg) and silymarin (25 mg/kg), with the effects being 65.00 1.58, 59.20 0.84, 55.20 1.30, and 57.00 1.00 IU/L, respectively. The levels of bilirubin, malondialdehyde, iron, phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ALT in contrast to control The amount of reduced glutathione in group F was lower after receiving CCl4 (2.21 0.239 mMol/g tissue). But using different doses of the extract and levamisol to treat the patients increased this decline (3.08 0.093, 4.17 0.241, 5.16 0.193, and 4.97 0.273 mMol/g tissue, respectively). The same trend was seen in the glutathione s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities as well as the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, zinc, and selenium. Histopathological studies demonstrated that the extract and levamisol reduced the centrilobular liver tissue degeneration brought on by CCl4. Furthermore, when compared to the control, the extract showed higher significant (p 0.05) dose-dependent lactase activity. The enzyme activity was 17.187, 18.8 22, 20.044, 22.022, and 23.898 at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 l. The results of this study suggest that the extract’s presence of several medicinally significant bioactive compounds may be to blame for the extract’s immunostimulatory and antihepatotoxic effects, as well as its increased lactase activity and improvement in haematological parameters. This supports the use of this plant in traditional medicine to treat illnesses.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

It is well known that plants contain a wide range of secondary metabolites. These bioactive substances, also known as secondary metabolites, have distinct physiological effects on the human body. Yadav and Agarwala (2011) estimate that about 25% of all currently prescribed medications are made of plant-based ingredients. It’s interesting to note that numerous phytochemicals have been isolated from a wide range of medicinal plants. However, a great deal more of them need to be used for clinical purposes. The need for alternative drugs of plant origin, made necessary by the high cost of synthetic drugs, makes phytochemical analysis of plants important. When consumed by animals, these secondary plant metabolites that can be extracted using a variety of solvents have varying biochemical and pharmacological effects (Nwogu et al., 2008).

Folklore’s use of Senna mimosoides The purpose of this work was medicine, specifically in Ukehe, Nsukka, to treat neonatal toxicity and oedema. Ekwueme et al. have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties and mode of action of Senna mimosoides leaf extract (2011a,b). In Nsukka, breastmilk is typically dropped on cocoyam leaves or ants right after delivery to test its toxicity. Typically, toxic breastmilk burns cocoyam leaves or devours any ants it comes into contact with. Mothers are more likely to be exposed to chemicals that could build up in breast milk due to the prevalence of industries. Because they are the basic mechanisms the body uses to fight off disease or treat it, the immunomodulatory activity and anti-hepatotoxic effect of the leaf extract of S. mimosoides were examined in this study.Additionally, the impact of the leaf extract on lactase activity—the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose, the sole carbohydrate found in breast milk—was tested.

1.1Overview of the Human Immune System

Studying the body’s defense mechanisms against infectious agents and other foreign substances in its environment is known as immunology (Wotherspoon, 2012). The immune system has thousands of parts, and it would seem that this complexity is unnecessary for what is, on the surface, a straightforward task of getting rid of a pathogenic organism or abnormal “self” cells (Parkin and Cohen, 2001).

 

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