MODULATION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS BY LEAF EXTRACTS OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS (HOOK F) AND TECTONA GRANDIS (LINN)

ABSTRACT

On both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, the immuno-modulating properties of leaf extracts from Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F) and Tectona grandis (Linn) were assessed in vivo. Using flow cytometry and ELISA, it was possible to identify the responding cells and measure their cytokine secretion. The bioactive molecules responsible for the observed effect’s structural elucidation was equally attempted. The extracts had a high concentration of bioactive compounds, including soluble carbohydrates (1.624 0.002; 0.910 0.003 mg/100g), tannin (6.593 0.228; 5.325 0.526 mg/100g), flavonoids (3.780 0.228; 3.285 0.526 mg/100g), saponins (3.285 0.526; 0.744 0. 004 mg/g),

mg/100g) and hydrogen cyanide (0.395 0.004; 0.344 0.004 mg/g) for the two different species, Telfairia and Tectona. According to studies on acute toxicity, the extracts are safe to consume up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight in test mice without causing death or other adverse effects. This study’s initial phase looked at how immune-compromised and non-immune-compromised rats’ responses to aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Telfairia occidentalis and Tectona grandis affected their ability to fight off infection.

The study has produced strong proof that the extracts under investigation have immune-modulating properties. It also confirmed that moderate boiling has no detrimental effects on this effect and that this effect is mediated by action on cytokine expression and synergistic anti-oxidant activity. In most of the tests, the two plant extracts had comparable results.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The reality of our contemporary society reveals a preponderance of behaviors that increase the production of free radicals, cause stress, weaken the immune system in the long run, and increase susceptibility to infections and diseases. An organism’s immune system is a network of biological mechanisms that works to ward off disease. It is made to keep the host safe from invasive pathogens and to get rid of disease (Sharmaet al., 2004; Naga and Rajeshwari, 2014). The immune system is essential for maintaining health and general wellbeing and is closely linked to the four leading causes of death, including cancer, degenerative diseases, injuries, and infections. While immunology studies how immune cells react and interact, immunity is concerned with the detection and elimination of foreign substances that enter the body.

of the effects (both positive and negative), how they operate, and how they can be positively increased or decreased. The innate response and the adaptive response are the two components of immune defense (Atal et al., 1986; Guyton and Hall, 2006). At birth, innate immunity serves as the first line of defense against contagious microorganisms. The second defense mechanism against infections is adaptive immunity. It is a later-acquired trait that remembers the intruders it has encountered (Nworu, 2007). Substances can alter innate and adaptive mechanisms to either increase or decrease the capacity to fend off pathogen invasion (Williams and Barclay1988).

It is well known that the immune system plays a role in both the pathophysiologic mechanism and the etiology of disease. numerous diseases (Kalpeshet al., 2009). Thus, immunology is likely one of the fields of biomedical research that is developing the most quickly and holds great promise for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of disorders (Patilet al., 2012). The identification of self and non-self, immune response regulation (Jerne, 1984), immune response termination after effective control of the offending agent (Parjis and Abbas, 1998), and creation of a repertoire of memory cells for the future are important components of the immune response. Alarming immunological disorders are now a growing threat to humanity. Different etiologies, such as environmental factors and dietary practices, are to blame for this increase. Multiple sclerosis, arthritis, congestive heart failure, autoimmune diseases, several inflammatory diseases, and congestive AIDS, malaria, typhoid fever, and the dreaded Ebola virus disease are just a few examples of infectious diseases. These and other diseases are brought on by immune system disorders (Patwardhan et al.,1990). The nutritional and metabolic status can have an impact on the immune system (Procaccini et al., 2013). Managing is greatly impacted by substances that affect the immune system, either by stimulating or suppressing it.

 

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