1.1 Background of the study

Since the dawn of civilization, man has been driven by the desire to advance and improve the lives of his fellow humans by exploring the natural world. It is undeniable that the natural environment, prior to the onset of environmental degradation, provided limitless opportunities for development and economic sufficiency of the inhabitants or populace; however, with the onset of environmental degradation, the inhabitants have been denied these opportunities and forced to live in abject poverty. Recognizing the dangers posed by environmental degradation, the international community and the Nigerian government have enacted various laws to combat it, while the various environmental laws in Nigeria and that of the international community (international legal instrument) in combating environmental degradations intended to yield Enhancing environmental sustainability yields a positive outcome. The obstinate attitude of those involved in environmental degradation has continued to weaken environmental laws, with the government and its agencies indirectly participating in the act of breaking environmental laws. Unfortunately, the existing legal framework has done little or nothing to address the threat of environmental degradation. Every day and everywhere, environmental degradation worsens, with no end in sight to how this crime can be stopped. As a result, the purpose of this thesis is to assess how environmental degradation violates human rights and environmental laws. It also intends to serve as a theoretical framework for reviewing and harmonizing relevant municipal and legal instruments. Similarly, no international agency or corporation will be able to combat environmental degradation. be omitted. As a result, a brief description or definition of environmental degradation is required. Degradation of the Environment Before we can consider environmental degradation, we must first understand what the environment is or what makes up the environment. The natural world in which people, animals, and plants live is referred to as the environment. It is also defined by Black’s Law Dictionary as the totality of physical, economic, cultural, aesthetic, and social circumstances and factors that surround and affect the desirability of property value and also affect the quality of life of people’s lives. According to Nigerian law, the “environment” includes water, air, land, and all plants, humans, and animals that live there, as well as any inter-relationships that exist between these or any of them. As a result, environmental degradation is a problem. the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of the ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially warned about by the United Nations’ high-level threat panel. As a result, the importance and relevance of the environment cannot be overstated; the environment is a complex and delicate system that, when properly managed and harnessed, can be geared to productive domestic, aesthetic, and even spiritual benefit; however, when poorly managed, it can be hazardous not only to human survival, but to the survival of all living things. It follows that the environment is the physical foundation upon which survival is built. However, it is unfortunate to note that the According to the World Bank report, the environment has been greatly threatened, with adverse and disastrous effects on human habitation and survival. Every day, more than 30,000 people die prematurely as a result of environmental degradation and pollution. Environmental degradation and pollution kill 108 million people each year. According to additional research, approximately 7.3 million people died globally due to environmental degradation and pollution between 1990 and 2009, a period of 19 years. As a result, it poses a threat to humanity’s survival and must be addressed by all countries and organizations around the world.


The negative consequences of a single oil spill incident are frequently enormous and unquantifiable. Pollution of the immediate environment is one of the most serious consequences of an oil spill. The amount of pollution in that environment is determined by the amount of oil spilled into the environment during that incident, the response to the oil spill, and the amount of oil that reaches the surrounding land. The magnitude of the harm is also affected by the type of environment into which the oil is spilled. In light of this, the researcher intends to investigate the environmental impact of environmental degradation and oil spillage.


The primary goal of this research is to determine the impact of environmental degradation and oil spillage on environmental law and human rights. However, in order to complete the study successfully, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives: I Determine the environmental impact of oil spillage. ii) Determine the government’s role in enforcing environmental laws. iii) To assess the relationship between environmental legislation and human rights. iv) To look into the effects of oil spills on environmental degradation.


The researcher developed the following research hypotheses to ensure the study’s success: H0: Oil spillage has no significant impact on the environment. H1: Oil spills have a significant environmental impact. H0: The government plays no significant role in enforcing environmental laws. H2: The government does play an important role in enforcing environmental laws.


The findings of the study, it is believed, will be of great importance to the federal ministry of environment, as the study seeks to address the effect of oil spillage on the environment, as well as the adverse effect of environmental degradation indictment on environmental laws and human rights. The study will also be useful to researchers who plan to conduct research on a similar topic. Finally, the findings of this study will be of great benefit to the government, academia, scholars, researchers, and the general public.


The study’s scope includes environmental degradation and oil spillage as an indictment of environmental laws and human rights. However, there are some factors in the study’s cause that worked against the study’s scope; a) RESEARCH MATERIAL AVAILABILITY: The researcher’s research material is insufficient, limiting the study. b) TIME: The study’s time frame does not allow for broader coverage because the researcher must balance other academic activities and examinations with the study. c) FINANCE: The funding available for the research project does not allow for broader coverage because resources are limited due to the researcher’s other academic obligations.


Degradation of the Environment

Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment caused by the depletion of resources such as air, water, and soil, as well as the destruction of ecosystems, habitat destruction, wildlife extinction, and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment that is deemed detrimental or undesirable.

Spilled oil

An oil spill is a type of pollution caused by the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, particularly marine areas. The term is most commonly associated with marine oil spills, in which oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills can also happen on land. Oil spills can occur as a result of crude oil spills from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs, and wells, as well as other sources.

spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline and diesel) and their byproducts, heavier fuels used by large ships, such as bunker fuel, or spills of any oily refuse or waste oil.

Environmental legislation

Environmental law, also known as “environmental and natural resources law,” refers to the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws that address the effects of human activity on the natural environment. The primary environmental law regimes address pollution. A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now heavily influenced by environmental legal principles, are concerned with the management of specific natural resources such as forests, minerals, or fisheries. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not neatly fit into either category but are nonetheless critical components of environmental management.


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