ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND IT’S ASSOCIATED HEALTH RISK AMONG RESIDENTS OF NKPOR, IDEMILI NORTH, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT

This study looked at environmental pollution and the associated health risks among residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area. The study specifically examined residents’ knowledge of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State, assessed residents’ perceptions of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State, and determined the associated health risks of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State. The survey descriptive research design was used in the study. The survey yielded a total of 259 valid responses. Wilkinson and Boulding’s theory of ecological change and development was used in this study (1973). Based on the responses received and The findings revealed that the majority of residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State are aware of environmental pollution. Furthermore, the findings revealed that respiratory infections, heart diseases, cancers, and central nervous system dysfunction are associated health risks of environmental pollution among residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study recommends that environmental education be incorporated into the school curriculum from primary to tertiary institutions in order to instill environmentally friendly attitudes in the general public. Such environmental education should be carried out through traditional media as well, in order to engage both literate and illiterate people in the quest for a healthy environment.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It has recently been observed that the role of the environment in a nation’s development process cannot be overlooked. Aside from providing a physical environment for natural habitats, the environment serves as the foundation for human exploits for agricultural, industrial, commercial, technological, and tourism development (Gbehe, 2004). For this and other reasons, environmental issues have taken center stage in academic debate and other public forums at both the national and international levels. The environment, according to documented evidence, represents a wide range of external circumstances, conditions, and things that affect the existence and development of an individual, organism, group (Isaichei 1999), and/or society. Environmental issues, for example, were not addressed in Nigeria.

gain official prominence until the 1988 Koko toxic waste dumping saga, which also highlighted the pressing need to establish the Nigeria Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Federal Ministry of Environment, and other relevant agencies, ostensibly to address environmental issues in the country. These include environmental pollution, sanitation, ozone layer depletion, desertification, flooding, erosion, poverty, bush burning, deforestation, soil conservation, and so on. All of the preceding points to the fact that environmental issues, specifically environmental pollution, which forms the basis of this paper, have taken center stage in the nation’s (Nigeria’s) development process (Gbehe, 2004).

Scholars concerned with the environment include Ocheri (2003:174), Gbehe (2004), and Aja (2005:114)

have linked environmental pollution to human activities, and Human interaction with the environment is ongoing. According to research, as a country’s population grows/increases with attendant pressure on the environment, particularly in the wake of improved technologies, environmental abuse and pollution are exacerbated, with corresponding effects on the lives of people and other living organisms (Ocheri, 2003). (Hauses, 1971). It has also been observed that man, through industrial, agricultural, and the ever-increasing urbanization process, security, and terrorist activities, tends to pollute the environment directly and/or indirectly. In their separate observations, Jande (2005) and Aja (2005) agree that unrestricted use of pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and indiscriminate dumping of refuse, excreta, and animal dung, as well as spillages from refineries, large-scale bush burning, and so on, are all harmful.

are regarded as major contributors to environmental pollution in Nigeria.

Environmental pollution occurs when the environment is unable to process and neutralize harmful byproducts of human activity in a timely manner without causing structural or functional damage to its system. Pollution occurs when the natural environment is unable to decompose the generated elements and when man fails to artificially decompose these pollutants. This has a negative impact on critical environmental services such as clean water, clean air, and arable land, all of which are necessary for life on Earth as we know it (Gbehe, 2004).

Pollution of the environment is a problem in both developed and developing countries. Population growth and urbanization, for example, invariably place greater demands on the environment.

Extend the use of natural resources to the greatest extent possible. Overuse of natural resources frequently leads to environmental degradation.

The physical, social, economic, political, and technological aspects of the human environment are all interconnected. The physical environment is made up of air, land, and water; the social environment is made up of the relationships that exist between them; the technological environment is made up of experiences and practices that are required for constant adaptation and survival; and the political environment is defined by the degree of authority that some have over others. Despite significant efforts to clean up the environment in recent years, pollution remains a major issue that poses ongoing health risks. According to Hagget (1975), the problems are undeniably worse in the developing world. Traditional pollution sources such as industrial emissions, poor sanitation, insufficient waste management, contaminated water supplies, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels affect a large number of people. Environmental pollution, however, persists even in developed countries, particularly among the poorer sectors of society. A wide range of modern pollutants have also emerged in recent decades, including those associated with road traffic and the use of modern chemicals in the home, food, water treatment, and pest control. Because most of these pollutants are rarely present in excessively high concentrations, the effects on health are rarely immediate or obvious. Because many human activities have an impact on the environment, the interactions between humans and their physical surroundings have been extensively studied. The environment is in danger.

a symbiotic relationship between the biotic (living organisms and microorganisms) and the abiotic (hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere) (Hagget, 1975).

Pollution is defined as the introduction of harmful substances into the environment that are harmful to humans and other living organisms. Pollutants are dangerous solids, liquids, or gases that are produced in higher-than-normal concentrations and degrade the quality of our environment. Human activities harm the environment by polluting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil that plants grow in. Although the industrial revolution was a great success in terms of technology, society, and the provision of numerous services, it also resulted in the production of massive amounts of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere that are harmful to human health. There is no doubt that the

Global environmental pollution is regarded as a multifaceted international public health issue. This major issue is linked to social, economic, and legislative concerns, as well as lifestyle habits. Clearly, urbanization and industrialization are reaching unprecedented and alarming levels in our time. Anthropogenic air pollution is one of the most serious public health threats in the world, accounting for approximately 9 million deaths each year (Inyang, 1978).

Without a doubt, all of the aforementioned are closely related to climate change, and in the event of danger, the consequences for mankind can be severe (Vincent 2011). Climate change and the effects of global planetary warming have a serious impact on multiple ecosystems, causing issues such as food safety, ice and iceberg melting, animal extinction, and plant damage.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to Inyang(1978), one of our era’s greatest scourges is environmental pollution, not only because of its impact on climate change, but also because of its impact on public and individual health due to increased morbidity and mortality. Many pollutants are major contributors to human disease. Particulate Matter (PM), particles with varying but very small diameters, enter the respiratory system via inhalation and cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunction, and cancer (Hagget, 1975). Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere protects against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful at ground level, affecting both the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds are all pollutants (VOCs), Air pollutants that are harmful to humans include dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). When inhaled in large quantities, carbon monoxide can cause direct poisoning. Heavy metals, such as lead, can cause direct poisoning or chronic intoxication when absorbed into the human body, depending on the level of exposure. The diseases caused by the aforementioned substances primarily include respiratory problems such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis, and lung cancer, as well as cardiovascular events, central nervous system dysfunctions, and cutaneous diseases (Ayia, 2009). Last but not least, climate change caused by pollution has an impact on the geographical distribution of many infectious diseases, as do natural disasters. The only way to address this issue is through public awareness combined with a multidisciplinary scientific approach. Experts, as well as national and international organizations, must respond to the emergence of this threat and propose long-term solutions.

  1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary goal of this study is to investigate environmental pollution and its associated health risks among residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area. Other study objectives include, but are not limited to:

To assess residents’ knowledge of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area.

To assess residents’ perceptions of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area.

To assess the health risks associated with environmental pollution among residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area.

  1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following objectives-related questions will be addressed in this study:

Are residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area aware of environmental pollution?

What is the public’s perception of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area?

What are the health risks associated with environmental pollution among residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area?

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study will provide the government with insight into the level of pollution prevalent in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State, as well as the need to pursue a sustainable environment. The study’s findings will also provide waste managers in the region with information on the prevalent types and causes of environmental pollution in the region, serving as a guide on how to manage and maintain a healthy environment.

Furthermore, the study’s findings will expose the public to the health risks associated with a polluted environment as a result of oil exploration and related activities.

Finally, this research will serve as a catalyst for new thinking.  and additional research on environmental pollution and the health risks it poses to scholars, lecturers, and the general public.

  1. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will assess environmental pollution and its associated health risk among residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area. It will specifically examine residents’ knowledge of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State, assess residents’ perception of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State, and determine the associated health risks of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State.

Selected residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area, Anambra State, will be enrolled in this study’s survey.

  1. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study will be limited to assessing environmental pollution and its associated health risks among residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Anambra State’s Local Government Area. It will specifically examine residents’ knowledge of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State, assess residents’ perception of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State, and determine the associated health risks of environmental pollution in Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area of Anambra State.

Furthermore, the researcher encountered minor constraints while conducting the research. The significant constraint was a lack of funds, relevant materials, and so on. There was also a time constraint because the researcher needed to complete this research.

in addition to attending lectures and other required educational activities.

Selected residents of Nkpor, Idemili North, Local Government Area, Anambra State, will be enrolled in this study’s survey. As a result, the findings of this study cannot be generalized, leaving a gap for future research.

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

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