EVALUATION OF THE ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS OF WATER AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) SEED ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

ABSTRACT

The need for an alternative form of treatment was driven by the high prevalence, complications, and expense of conventional diabetes medications. This study looked at the composition, potential toxicity, and tissue-protective properties of both the water and methanolic extracts of Persea americana (avocado pear) seed on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Based on knowledge of the seed’s use in treating diabetes locally, this study’s conception and design. Using the maceration method, 100g of the sample was extracted with 1000ml of both water and methanol after the proximate and anti-nutritional components of the seed were identified. The extracts were dried using a rotary evaporator and kept in a freezer at 4°C until needed. The results of various doses (200 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg) of On alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats, the effects of both water and methanolic extracts of P. americana seed were contrasted with those of insulin, a standard treatment. For 21 days, the rats’ weight and blood glucose levels were assessed every week. Investigations were conducted into the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and liver function tests. The seed is rich in carbohydrate (49.03 0.02 g/100g), lipid (17.90 0.14 g/100g), protein (15.55 0.36 g/100g), moisture (15.10 0.14 g/100g), and ash (2.26 0.23 g/100g, according to the results of the proximate investigation. Total oxalate (14.980.03 mg/100g), tannin (6.980.04 mg/100g), and phytic acid (3.180.16 mg/100g) are antinutritional ingredients. Additionally, the results revealed that both the water and methanolic extracts significantly reduced the rats’ incidence of diabetes. But the methanolic extracts demonstrated a superior anti-diabetic impact compared to water extracts. The extracts reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced albino diabetic rats rather than having any discernible effects on the liver function parameters (bilirubin, conjugate bilirubin, AST, ALP, and ALT) when compared to the normal control. A pharmacological foundation for the traditional use of P. americana seed extracts in the treatment of diabetes is provided by the current study, in conclusion. It appears that P. americana seeds contain a significant amount of nutrients, which could justify their use as food or animal feed. To identify the compound that gives the seed extract its anti-diabetic effects, additional research is necessary.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND

The traditional medical systems have become more significant over the last ten years. According to the World Health Organization, 4 billion people, or 80% of the world’s population, currently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary healthcare (WHO, 2002). (Orisataoki and Oguntibeju, 2010). According to the WHO (2002), 80% of African populations use some form of traditional herbal medicine, and the global market for these goods is close to US$ 60 billion annually (Willcox and Bodeker, 2004). The traditional medical practices of all indigenous peoples heavily rely on herbal remedies. In the global search for efficient ways to use plant parts (such as seeds, leaves, stems, roots, barks, etc.) for the treatment of many diseases affecting humans, medicinal plants have continued to draw attention (Sofowora, 2008). Here is

due to the ongoing demand for less expensive ways to control disease.

Plants that can be used therapeutically or that act as building blocks for the synthesis of useful drugs are known as medicinal plants (Sofowora, 2008). Due to their bioactive components, such as alkaloids, tannins, steroids, etc., many important drugs used in modern medicine are directly derived from plants. Examples include Quinine from Cinchona ledgeriana and L-Dopa from Mucuna spp., both of which are used as antipyretics and antimalarials. Caffeine is a CNS stimulant derived from Camellia sinensis.

 

 

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