The study’s main goal is to look into the impact of formal education on community development in the Oredo Local Government of Edo State. The study used a survey descriptive research methodology, and the researcher purposefully selected 150 participants for the study using the convenience sample approach. The responder was given a self-structure questionnaire, of which one hundred forty-one (141) were extracted and validated for the study. Simple percentages were used to examine the data, which was then presented in the form of frequencies and tables. The Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to conduct the hypothesis test (SPSS v.23).
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is one criterion for determining a country’s economic status. Education is the most important factor in a country’s progress (Shofwan & Kuntoro, 2014). People become more advanced in their thinking about their lives as a result of their education; they gain knowledge, skills, and attitudes that empower them in society. Education is thought to be the mother of all knowledge, and it is assumed that a well-educated society will be able to address its issues quickly. After all, the importance of education to humanity cannot be overstated. This is because it is thought to be a “connect medicine” that is utilized to treat social ills. M.C. Ashmore (1991) proposed that education is viewed as a tool for development. The form of education that involves the learning of skills, ideas, and managerial abilities necessary for job creation is referred to as education as part of the complete educational system. Only a formal school can provide a proper education. A formal school is a building that is meant to provide learning spaces and settings for students or pupils who are being taught by teachers. Most nations have formal education systems, which are usually compulsory. Students move through a sequence of schools in these systems. Formal education, non-formal education, and informal education are the three types of education available. To fulfill the social function active insertion, formal education must accept education and use it in a productive way for teaching and influencing. Christian missionaries introduced formal education, also known as western education, to Nigeria in the 19th century. The missionaries’ goals and objectives were to introduce education to the area. Returning slaves, according to Odo, Ede, and Ezike (2000′ 39), felt compelled to inform their relatives about the western education they had experienced while enslaved. The fundamental goal of missionary education was to convert Africans to Christianity as their faith. It was critical for them to educate Africans so that they could continue the process of evangelization into the hinterlands, as they noted that most whites were unable to do so owing to bad weather and mosquito bites. Education has influenced human development and community development, according to several scientists and authors. In essence, community development is the process of establishing a community via the use of sustainable physical and non-physical resources. One of the most important elements of modern living is sustainability. In terms of the environment, society is increasingly valuing sustainable technology, processes, and goods (Vivoda & Kemp, 2019). This relates to the physical field of facility and infrastructure construction, such as highways and so on. It is, however, linked to non-physical domains such as education, health, and the economy for a better existence. It is vital to prioritize efforts in community development, particularly in the domains of education and the economy, in order to improve people’s welfare. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), formal education has aided in the production of goods and services in Denmark by allowing people with educational qualifications and skills to produce more goods and services while also improving their knowledge of the Danish innovation system. Formal education, as well as the development of telecommunication technology, has a significant impact on drug and pharmaceutical addict countries such as China, Japan, India, and the United States of America (Hansen, 1993). The researchers aim to know how community development in Oredo Local Government, Edo State, has been affected by the same formal schooling.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Notably, rural areas are home to more than half of the world’s population and more than 70% of the poor, where hunger, illiteracy, and low school attainment are all frequent. Education is critical for attaining sustainable development for a large number of people in rural areas. Due to several socioeconomic and institutional systems in rural areas, rural areas are considered as having more educational development obstacles than urban ones.
In Nigeria, missionaries and colonial overlords brought their culture, Christianity, education, and civilisation style, among other things. These, particularly culture, Christianity and education had a profound impact on our lives. The first formal schools appeared to be associated with priestly establishments. This indicates that education was limited to a tiny percentage of the population, mainly nobility’s sons, depending on social class. Though diverse societies formed with the school or other society for survival, society is considered as an organized collectivity of people made up of a network of interconnected groupings. The same may be said about formal education in terms of community development. As a result, education serves as a gear shift that, if all hands are on deck, can propel a society toward a brighter future. While this appears to be the case, many academics believe that the extent to which formal education is provided is limited.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study’s main goal is to look into the impact of formal education on community development in the Oredo Local Government of Edo State. In particular, the research will:
Determine whether formal education has a major impact on the socioeconomic development of Oredo Local Government communities.
Examine how far formal education has progressed in the Oredo Local Government.
Determine how formal education has aided community development in the Oredo Local Government.
determining whether formal education has resulted in sufficient infrastructure development in the Oredo Local Government
HO1: In the Oredo Local Government, formal schooling has no substantial impact on community socioeconomic development.
HO2: In the Oredo Local Government, formal schooling has no substantial impact on community human and infrastructure development.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to demonstrate how formal education can be used as a tool for personal growth and how effective educational policies can be established and executed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the following significance. When the research is finished, it will be valuable in filling knowledge gaps and assisting stakeholders in generating new ideas that will aid in the extension of knowledge’s foundations. It will also help policymakers in the field of education design more effective policies. This study will serve as a beneficial guide and resource for other students who wish to conduct research on the same issue. Finally, when this research is concluded, it will produce some beneficial results.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The focus of this research is on the impact of formal education on community development in Edo State’s Oredo Local Government. This study will focus on the activities connected to an individual’s growth as a result of formal education, with a particular focus on the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and moral development of the inhabitants of Oredo in Edo State.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researchers ran into some minor roadblocks while conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The scarcity of literature on formal education and community development was a major stumbling block. So much work and planning went into locating the resources and literature that would be pertinent to the study, as well as the data collection procedure. The study is also constrained in terms of sample size and geography, as it only includes students from the Oredo Local Government in Edo State. As a result, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to other tertiary institutions, leaving a need for future research.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Education is defined as any act or event that has a formative effect on an individual’s mind, character, or physical ability. It is the method by which humans acquire knowledge.
Development: This refers to a state of entire and full transformation in any specific individual, society, or state. The term “development” in this study refers to a beneficial change in a society’s physical, mental, social, political, economic, and administrative aspects.