The study looked at the impact of abortion stigma, behavior patterns, and distress tolerance on adolescent substance use. Four (4) scales were used to determine the impact of abortion stigma, behavior pattern, and distress tolerance on substance use among adolescents: the Abortion Stigma Scale by Shellenberg, KM, Levandowski, B., Hessini, L. (2014), the Type A Behavior Scale by (Omoluabi, 1997), the Distress Tolerance Scale by Simon and Gaher’s (2005), and the Substance Use Scale by Montgomery County Court Referral Program (Court Ad (2012). 217 students from three secondary schools in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, took part. A purposive sampling strategy was used to pick 106 males and 111 females for this investigation. The study’s design was a cross-sectional survey, and the statistics utilized were a 222 analysis of variance for unequal sample size. The data revealed that stigma surrounding abortion had a substantial impact on adolescent substance use [F, (1209)=26.36, P0.01]. Adolescent substance use is significantly influenced by behavioral patterns [F, (1209)=6.29, P.05]. Distress tolerance did not have a major impact on adolescent substance use. As a result, two of the hypotheses were accepted and one was rejected, as well as recommendations and suggestions for further research.




Adolescence is defined as “the time of life that begins with puberty’s biochemical, hormonal, and physical changes and ends when an individual achieves a stable, independent function in society” (Balocchini, Chiamenti, & Lamborghini, 2013). During adolescence, one is susceptible to a variety of dangerous behaviors. One such set of behaviors is substance abuse. Adolescents face a variety of issues, including teen pregnancy, alcohol and drug abuse, violence, failure in school, and eating disorders (Callaham, 2003, Stein, Jaycox, kataoka, Rhodes; & Vestal ,2003).

Adolescence is the time when most people start using substances like alcohol and other drugs (Chia, et. al. 2015). Adolescence is also a time of rapid brain development, so mind-altering substances may have a greater impact.

When someone consumes alcohol or drugs, they are said to be using substances. Drug use is a broad term that encompasses the use of all psychoactive substances. There are four stages to drug use: drug-free (i.e. non-use), experimental use, recreational use, and harmful use, which is further subdivided into misuse and dependence. This definition does not differentiate between alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, solvents, over-the-counter drugs, prescribed drugs, and illicit drugs; rather, it focuses on changes in the body and/or behavior caused by their use. These substances are also known as psychoactive drugs because they alter mood, thinking, perception, and behavior by affecting the central nervous system.

Similarly, the term does not distinguish between drug legality, societal acceptability, or ‘value.’ Definitions that are too broad. The use of multiple substances, also known as poly-use, is one of the most concerning. The clustering of substance-use behaviors can be explained by a number of theories. Frequent use of one substance may affect the dopamine system, and hence the reward value of substances, on a physiological level. A favourable appraisal of a previously taken substance may generalize to other substances, including those not previously consumed. Smokers and drinkers have more favourable attitudes toward illicit drugs and are more likely to use them than non-smokers and non-drinkers. Family cohesion and peers who condone substance use appear to have similar effects on adolescents’ smoking, drinking, and marijuana use. Different types of substance abuse may also have a negative impact. Drinking, marijuana usage, and delinquent behavior may all act as’maturity markers,’ allowing the adolescent to defy conventional standards. New experiences have a positive impact on sensation seekers. High-risk sports fascinate some people, while psychoactive chemicals entice others to try. Finally, substance-abusing behaviors are likely to occur together since they occur in the same environment. Many folks drink and smoke in the bunks. The immediate determinants of use, on the other hand, are substance specific, according to expectancy-value theories. Marijuana usage, for example, is predicted by thoughts and feelings about marijuana use, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and related theories. If an adolescent uses a second substance (such as alcohol), there are intra- and interpersonal aspects that are unique to alcohol use. Adolescent abortion issues are intertwined with the status and meaning of abortion in the country in which they live. Abortion and unwanted pregnancies have existed since the dawn of time. George Devereux’s important work on the history of abortion around the world, published in 1976, shows that abortion is common across cultures and time. In their various societies, the Chinese, Greek, and Roman cultures all created mechanisms for dealing with undesired pregnancies and limiting population growth. The Egyptians were among the first to develop abortion techniques, which were explored and described in some of their earliest medical literature, which are still in use today (Devereux 1976). Abortion is now one of the most prevalent gynecological procedures; in fact, the majority of women will have an abortion at some point in their lives. Abortion stigma was defined by International Project Assistance Services (Ipas) in 1978 as a “negative feature assigned to women who wish to terminate a pregnancy that’marks’ them as inferior to ideals of womanhood.” Abortion stigma is a well-studied yet under-theorized phenomena that affects those who have had abortions or are otherwise associated to abortion. The few studies that exist focus solely on women who have had abortions, which accounts for roughly one-third of women in the United States by the age of 45. (Henshaw, 1998). Women seeking abortions, according to Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell (2009), question regional cultural norms concerning women’s “fundamental character.” Abortion stigma is seen to extend to medical professionals who perform abortions, as well as friends and family members who support abortion patients.

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