1.1 Background of the study

Mathematics is a subject that has an impact on almost every aspect of human life. Because all of the above disciplines used numbers to analyze and synthesize data in order to gain a clear understanding of what they were doing and to ensure that they were doing it correctly, the social, socioeconomic, scientific, and technological aspects of man are all centered on numbers—disciplines where numbers are predominant and form an integral part of mathematics include: statistics, accounts, engineering, and so on. For example, mathematical manipulations were used to create humanity’s first civilisation.

Mathematics, due to its numerical and symbolic nature, is more closely linked to the scientific and technical aspects of man’s world than any other element, as it arises and recurs in the natural world. Natural and physical sciences. As a result of this (Encyclopaedia of Education, 2003). This civilisation’s modernization is heavily reliant on mathematics. It is all around us and has an impact on our daily lives. Despite the fact that it is abstract and theoretical knowledge, it comes from the real world. With a wide range of subject content, mathematics is an important and fundamental part of the college curriculum. Mathematics is extremely important in education. Mathematics is a distinct subject because it focuses on numbers, their relationships, and the operations that can be performed on them. Okonkwo (2000) writes, “Nature speaks to us through the language of mathematics; numbers, mathematical principles, and equations enable us to understand the world around us.” Students’ continued poor performance in

The subject has become a national concern, with parents, teachers, and educational planners looking for solutions to the declining trend in mathematics achievement. As a result, the rationale for conducting this study is both reasonable and intriguing. Students’ poor performance in the first school leaving certificate test demonstrated that more work is needed to improve the situation. Furthermore, the rate at which students are afraid of the subject is a situation that, if not handled correctly, can result in additional harm and problems for students. Over the years, poor mathematics performance has been blamed on the subject’s difficulty. Students’ attitudes toward mathematics study or learning have been found to reflect their anxiety and fear.

1.2 Research problem statement 

In an ideal world, schools would improve students’ academic performance in order to achieve their primary goals of teaching and learning. Students were expected to have basic literacy and numeracy skills before entering secondary school. Many students, unfortunately, are unable to read or write. Many of them are unable to complete their homework without the help of their parents. Many students are unable to pass their standardized entrance exams on their own. The majority of teachers and parents help their students complete such tests. Numerous studies have been carried out to determine the causes of poor mathematics performance; however, the problem remains unsolved to this day. According to many studies, poor teaching methods and students’ inherent fear of mathematics exacerbate mathematics problems. However, some

Factors that contribute to students’ poor math performance have been identified. Teacher qualifications, pupil fears, mathematics teachers’ teaching methods, and so on are among these factors. Despite research efforts aimed at confirming such opinions, these factors are based on opinion. On that note, the researcher believed it was critical to investigate the causes of students’ poor math performance. All of this and more will be covered in the research.

1.3 The study’s objectives

The study’s primary goal is as follows:

1. To ascertain the causes of pupils’ poor performance in primary school mathematics examinations.

2. Investigate the impact of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in mathematics.

3. Determine whether parents’ socioeconomic status influences their children’s academic performance in mathematics.

4. Compare the math performance of private and public primary school students.

1.4 Hypothesis of research

H01: Parents’ socioeconomic status has no effect on their children’s academic performance in mathematics.

HA1: The socioeconomic background of parents influences students’ academic performance in mathematics.

H02: the use of instructional materials has no effect on the academic performance of students in mathematics.

The use of instructional materials has an effect on students’ academic performance in mathematics.

1.5 Importance of the research

The importance of this study cannot be overstated because:

This research will look into the causes of poor performance in primary school mathematics examinations.

The research findings will undoubtedly provide much needed information to government organizations, the ministry of education, and academia.

1.6 The Study’s Scope

This research looks into

An investigation into the causes of pupils’ poor performance in primary school mathematics examinations. As a result, Katsina state primary school students will be used as case studies.

1.7 Research limitations

A number of factors hampered this study, which are as follows:

just like any other research, from a lack of needed accurate materials on the topic under study to an inability to obtain data

The researcher faced financial constraints in obtaining relevant materials as well as printing and collating questionnaires.

Time constraint: Another constraint is time, which makes it difficult for the researcher to shuttle between writing the research and engaging in other academic work.

1.8 Term operational definition

A performance is the act of presenting something.

A play, a concert, or some other form of entertainment.

An examination is a thorough inspection or study.


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