Universities around the world are still dealing with serious issues that have disastrous consequences for educational practice. Fee increases have a negative impact on both students and programs. For example, the United Kingdom increased university fees in 2013, resulting in a drop in enrollment of up to 18,000 students. In Australia, eight of the country’s top universities used fee increases to reduce student enrollment. As a result of the fee increases, there were more dropouts and fewer opportunities for education. In Nigeria, national universities from inception began to grapple with issues of admission, accommodation, education policies, student unionism,funding and the likes coupled with the Government removal of subsidies from universities in 1978 via “Ali Must go Saga’.

The recent and unexpected increase in tuition fees in Nigeria Tertiary education has become a major source of concern for both researchers and the general public, who have been led to believe that the government does not care about low-income citizens or those who cannot afford to attend a private university. Many students were unable to continue their studies due to the increase, as well as high school fees. Many students dropped out of their program because their parents or self-sponsored ones could not afford the fees. Students’ irregular attendance and absenteeism became common occurrences. Some of the students who do not drop out move out of the hostel. Some students seek refuge outside of campus in less expensive lodging. Some of the females who were raped in the

Others are cheated in the process. Some of the males are slaughtered. Many off-campus students begin skipping classes in order to save money. Because some students will be juggling school and odd jobs, lectures will receive less attention. A significant increase in poor academic performance will occur, as will a slew of other consequences associated with an increase in tuition fees in Nigeria. As a result, this study is designed to investigate the impact of increased university tuition fees on tertiary student dropout.


Dropping out of school can be expensive for individuals, especially if there is a higher risk of unemployment and lower lifetime earnings (Arulampalam et al., 2005). Both students at

Tuition and other fees at private and public tertiary institutions are being raised in a variety of ways, with little or no regard for parental income, students’ socioeconomic status, or other factors that may prevent students from continuing their education.

Some education analysts and students interviewed believed that the government and/or tertiary school proprietors and school authorities did not want the poor to attend school so that the socioeconomic class divide would continue to widen. It’s no surprise that tuition and other fees in Enugu State’s tertiary institutions continue to rise. For example, at the time of this research, the postgraduate tuition fee at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka had nearly doubled from the previous year.

Academic year 2013/14. The tuition fee at Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) has also been raised in recent years, as has the current increase at Kaduna State University from N26,000 to N150,000 for students in the Faculty of Arts, Management, and Social Sciences. It was also reported that the university raised tuition fees in the Faculty of Medicine to N300,000 from N24,000, with non-indigenous students paying N500,000.

As a result, as the tuition fees of these tertiary institutions continue to rise without adequate consideration for the poor students who work in menial jobs like “okada,” “keke-na-pepe,” bus driving, and so on to pay their tuition in order to gain formal education. The number of dropouts has continued to rise, with the majority of them

Dropouts are engaging in social evils such as cultism, armed robbery, fraud stars, kidnapping, touts, and other illegal means of subsistence because the labor market is extremely competitive and there are no jobs available for them. Some graduates go so far as to work as gatekeepers, security guards in residential homes, and car washers in garages. Against this backdrop, this study set out to investigate the impact of tuition fee increases on student dropout.


The purpose of this research is to look into the impact of tuition fee increases on school dropout. It will specifically investigate the frequency with which national universities implement unexpected tuition fee increases. It will determine the extent to which

Tuition fee increases result in student absenteeism. It will investigate whether scholarships or government education subsidies will reduce dropout rates among Nigerian tertiary students.


This research will be important to the general public, including students, educational stakeholders, policymakers, and school management boards. It will draw policymakers’ attention to the need to develop strategies to make education affordable for the common man rather than a burden. To the government, emphasize the importance of subsidized education in tandem with National Education Policy (geared toward free and compulsory education for all), which is an excellent tool for national development. The study encourages students to be resilient even in the face of adversity.

Rather than resorting to social vices, they sought legal ways to support themselves rather than abandoning their educational pursuits. The study will help international non-governmental organizations like USAID and UKAID award more scholarships to deserving students on the verge of dropping out. Finally, the study will add to the body of knowledge by serving as a reference material and allowing for additional academic research in this field.


The purpose of this study is to look into the impact of tuition fee increases on school dropout. It will investigate the frequency with which national universities implement unexpected tuition fee increases. It will determine the scope.

Which tuition fee increases result in student absenteeism from school? It will investigate whether scholarships or government education subsidies will reduce dropout rates among Nigerian tertiary students. As a result, this study is restricted to Kaduna State University in Kaduna.


H0: Tuition fee increases in public universities are minor.

H0: An increase in tuition fees has no significant effect on student dropout in tertiary institutions.


During the course of this research, the following factors may pose a limitation.

Financial constraint- Inadequate funding tends to impede the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection process.

(via the internet, a questionnaire, and an interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


Tuition Fees: Tuition Fees are fees that educational institutions charge for instruction or other services. Tuition fees are the fees paid to be taught, typically at a college or university.

Tertiary Institution: A tertiary institution is defined as a university or other tertiary education provider recognized by the Employer that provides Degrees, Diplomas, or teacher education courses.

Drop Out: A school dropout is someone who leaves school without obtaining a minimum credential or completing the academic year required by their course of study.

Absenteeism: Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of missing work. Without justification, a duty or obligation is imposed. Absenteeism is defined as unplanned absences. Absenteeism has been associated with poor individual performance.


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