PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS’ PERSPECTIVE OF PUNISHMENT IN ENHANCING DISCIPLINE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Punishment, as well as other forms of cruel and humiliating punishment, have long been used to enforce discipline at home and in the classroom. According to Kubeka’s (2004) research of disciplinary methods in a South African primary school, teachers believe that without corporal punishment, discipline cannot be maintained, and students will be rude to the teacher and fail to learn the discipline to work hard. Physical punishment was preferred by teachers for controlling school discipline because it was quick and easy to administer compared to other discipline management approaches, which they believe require time, patience, and talent, all of which educators do not always have. Discipline is used to either prevent or punish wrongdoing. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, discipline (2015), It includes both prevention and correction. It can be “training designed to produce a specific character or pattern of behavior” or “controlled behavior resulting from such training,” as well as “punishment intended to correct or train.” Educational scholars have studied the preventative and remedial components of school and classroom discipline, which will be covered in the background (Fowers, 2012). Discipline is the expression of purely primal desires, and it is frequently confused with self-control. Self-discipline can be used to replace motivation, but it is not. It is the polar opposite of having fun to use reason to determine the best course of action. Virtuous behavior is defined as acting in accordance with one’s goals: doing what one knows is right. best and most cheerfully. Continent behavior, on the other hand, is when one does what they know is best but has to go against their own desires to do so (Blaine, 2008). Educational scholars have studied both the preventative and remedial components of school and classroom discipline, and the findings from both are critical to the context. It is commonly assumed that students must be disciplined in order to succeed in school, particularly during the mandatory two-year term. Discipline is defined as “instruction that corrects, molds, or perfects mental capacities or moral characteristics, adherence to authority or laws, and punishment to correct undesirable behaviors,” according to Eggleton (2001). School discipline is commonly defined as school policies and actions. personnel to prevent students from engaging in undesirable behaviors, with a focus on school conduct codes and security methods, suspension, corporal punishment, and teachers’ methods of managing students’ actions in class (Cameron, 2006). Respect for others, punctuality, honesty (which eliminates academic cheating), trust, and many other aspects of school discipline are essential. The type of punishment is determined primarily by the child’s sociocultural context (Tan, 2014). Slapping, beating, or kicking, kneeling or standing for an extended period of time, scolding and verbal assault, cutting grasses, fetching water, knocking on the head, pulling of ears, sweeping and tidying of the school environment, sending a pupil out of the class, seizure and denial of a pupil’s belongings, and other forms of punishment are all possible. In a school setting. Physical punishment is prohibited in several countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, and, most recently, Hong Kong, as well as in South African schools, according to Yuanshan (1999). (Cicognani, 2004). In Zambia, corporal punishment in schools is prohibited. Meanwhile, physical punishment is still legal in Nigerian households and schools, both as a punishment for crime and as a disciplinary mechanism in correctional facilities (Newell, 2007). Punishment, particularly corporal punishment, has been criticized as a method of correcting children. According to Hyman (1990), corporal punishment is a form of child maltreatment and psychological abuse. They also condemned it, citing adverse effects such as physical problems, increased anxiety, personality changes, and despair. According to Gershoff,
According to (2002), corporal punishment increases aggression while decreasing moral internalization and mental health. According to Robinson, the negative consequences of physical punishment include running away, fear of the instructor, feelings of powerlessness, humiliation, hostility, and damage at home and at school, abuse, and criminal activity (2005). Children in Nigeria who are subjected to corporal punishment suffer from vision damage (Kayode, 2007). Other scholars, including Baumrind (1996) and Larzelere (1996), supported physical punishment as a legitimate method of discipline.
1.2 THE PROBLEM’S STATEMENT
The problem of school indiscipline has persisted over time. These activities have been carried out either individually or collectively by students, resulting in rioting or revolts. There is no doubt that student disobedience impedes effective teaching and learning. as the production of useful and accepted members of society (Straus, 2003). As a result, some parents appear to be avoiding their parental roles and responsibilities to their children. Teachers who are dissatisfied and unmotivated are unlikely to encourage others to study or to devote their time to effective instruction (Oluwakemi, 2009). By failing to provide adequate school facilities and equipment, the government contributes to indiscipline. The researcher has discovered that teachers no longer punish their students in the same way they used to, particularly in today’s private schools, which is influencing student indiscipline. While there are other ways to discipline students, punishment cannot be eliminated; this, however, prompted the researcher to conduct this study on students’ perspectives on punishment.
Punishment is being used to improve discipline among primary school students.
1.3 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVE
The primary goal of this research is to learn about primary school students’ perspectives on using punishment to improve classroom discipline. The study’s specific goals are as follows:
i. Determine which variables help primary school students be more disciplined.
ii. Investigate how punishment affects elementary school students’ discipline.
iii. Find out what punishment means to primary school students and how it can help them be more disciplined.
iv. Discover the difficulties that teachers face when punishing their students.
1.4 QUESTION FOR RESEARCH
i. What factors influence students’ ability to be more disciplined in primary school?
ii. How does punishment affect discipline?
students in elementary school?
iii. What do primary school students think about punishment and how it can help them be more disciplined?
iv. What difficulties do teachers face when disciplining their students?
1.5 THE STUDY’S SIGNIFICANCE
The study’s findings will be useful for policymakers and decision makers in establishing necessary teacher training on the effects of corporal punishment in enhancing discipline in primary schools. The findings of this study can be used by decision makers and policymakers to improve strategies for dealing with corporal punishment issues in primary schools. The study is also beneficial to students because the use or non-use of CP may help them perform well academically. Furthermore, the research can be applied.
by researchers in identifying gaps in educational research.
1.6 STUDY OBJECTIVES
The study evaluated the following subject scope: to identify various opinions on punishment on student discipline in a sample of elementary schools. To find alternatives to punishment for primary school students and to investigate how head teachers deliver punishments affects students’ discipline.
1.7 THE STUDY’S LIMITATION
Over the course of the studies, obtaining funding for general research activity will be difficult. Correspondents may also be unable or unwilling to complete or submit questionnaires sent to them. However, it is expected that these constraints will be overcome by making the best use of available resources and devoting more resources. More research time is required. As a result, despite these constraints, it is strongly believed that their impact on this research report will be minimal, allowing the study’s purpose and importance to be met.