1.1       Background of the study

When supported by the instructor, communication in the classroom may be an important component of every student’s learning, necessitating the need to build in students the skills to communicate, criticize, and analyze their own and other students’ work. This not only helps them learn faster, but it also encourages critical thinking and cooperative learning (Kanl, & Emir 2013).

In the twenty-first century, several developed and developing countries are questioning their traditional educational philosophies and programs for the education of thinking, problem-solving, evaluator, decision-maker, responsible, creative, up-to-date individuals who fit this age of information and technology, where the lecturer is the transmitter and the student is the receiver. Education programs, lecture materials, lesson plans, and statistically determined educational output are all considered studies.

in terms of traditional cultural reproduction and social order maintenance (Tanner and Tanner, 2007).

Notably, traditional education has been chastised for ignoring student life, limiting student participation, and defining a student’s task based on school books and course outlines (Dewey, 1997), necessitating the need for progressive education, which necessitates individuals who solve problems, argue, question, change, and lead rather than accumulating information. This requirement emphasizes the significance of the problem-based learning (PBL) method, which allows students to work in groups on a topic-specific scenario. The primary goal of an educational program, according to Gagne (1959), is to teach students how to solve problems in both their academic subjects and their personal lives. This is critical because problem-solving abilities are required.

assist a person in actively adapting to their surroundings; it is also necessary for people to become inquisitive and problem-solving individuals (Marzano, 1989). As a result, people with these credentials should be able to think more critically. A person’s thinking is guided by problem resolution (Kalayc, 2001).

Problem solving, according to Gagne (1985), activates the most complex cognitive processes and allows for the simultaneous application of numerous key skills such as learning by doing, developing cause-and-effect relationships, and evaluating the relationships between concepts and occurrences. As Dewey predicted, progressive techniques such as problem-based learning (PBL) have become critical at this juncture because they motivate students to conduct research, discover, and apply their creativity (Delisle, 1997). The modern requirement for problem solving, debating, questioning, and modifying

PBL’s significance has been highlighted by leaders who apply information rather than collecting it. PBL significantly improves individuals’ abilities in all of these areas (Tatar and Oktay, 2011; Peterson and Treagust, 1998). Several studies (Klnç, 2007; Harland, 2003; Mayer, 2002) show that PBL has an impact on students’ development of these skills.

1.2 Definition of the problem

As classroom instructions should be developed in ways that empower learners with problem-solving skills, it is clear that the teaching and learning process has become more varied and engaging, with the option for more personal contribution from students. While Nigerian schools have a long history, the educational landscape has shifted from teacher-centered to learner-centered, necessitating the adoption of this model. of a problem-based learning method. Problem-Based Education directs students to conduct research, learn, discuss, select the best option among many solutions, and apply what they have learned in real-life scenarios; in short, it is an approach that teaches students research, teamwork, and observation from multiple perspectives in real-life scenarios (Deveci, 2002; Kaptan and Korkmaz, 2002). According to PBL, learning takes place as a result of cognitive and social interaction in a problem-oriented media. According to this premise, PBL is defined as a constructivist educational paradigm that incorporates the teaching of general principles that can be applied to comparable situations as well as information that can be applied to future challenges (Norman and Schmidt, 2000).

1996; Greeno, Collins, and Resnick).

Independent studies, on the other hand, frequently concentrate on a specific application or operation in order to determine the impact of PBL on success when compared to traditional instruction. However, few studies have looked at the impact of PBL on academic achievement in non-private secondary schools. Because there was a current study in this field that needed to be done, the researcher felt motivated to investigate this topic. Based on this premise, the study focused on the Problem Based Learning approach and its impact on student academic achievement in Rivers State private secondary schools.

1.3 Purpose of the research

The study’s overarching goal is to investigate the Problem Based Learning approach and

Its impact on student academic achievement in Rivers State’s private secondary schools. Specifically, the research

1. Determine whether the Problem Based Learning approach improves students’ critical thinking skills.

2. Determine whether the Problem Based Learning approach improves students’ cognitive research skills and social interaction during classroom instruction.

3. To determine whether the Problem Based Learning approach can provide students with the problem-solving skills they will need in the future.

4. To identify some factors impeding teachers’ effective use of the Problem Based Learning approach in the classroom.

1.4 Hypothesis of Research

H01: The Problem Based Learning approach has no significant impact on students’ academic performance.

H02: The Problem Based Learning approach has no effect on improving students’ cognitive research skills or social interaction.

1.5 Importance of the research

This study investigates the impact of Problem Based Learning on student achievement in a private school. This observation is important for students because it will help some students appreciate and accept this discovery learning method. The study’s findings will be useful to tutors because they will develop better ways to apply the Problem Based Learning method, which results in effective learning. The study’s findings will also be used by academia and scholars as a reference material to guide them in researching related topics. Finally, the study will add empirically to the body of knowledge and identify gaps for future research.

1.6 The scope of the research

This study’s scope includes

on the Problem Based Learning approach and its impact on student academic achievement in private secondary schools. The study will look into whether the Problem Based Learning approach improves students’ critical thinking skills. The study seeks to determine whether the Problem Based Learning approach can improve students’ cognitive research skills and social interaction during classroom instruction. It will determine whether the Problem Based Learning approach can provide students with the problem-solving skills they will need in the future, as well as identify some factors impeding teachers’ effective use of the Problem Based Learning approach during classroom instruction. The study is limited to selected private schools in the Rivers State metropolis of Port Harcourt.

1.7 The study’s limitations

The researchers encountered minor constraints while conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant limitation was the

Because there was little literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and collecting data, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited sample size. Furthermore, the researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, so the results cannot be generalized to other populations. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all factors were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research successful.

1.8 Term definitions:

Problem-Based Learning (PBL): PBL employs

The subject matter of the classroom is complex, real-world issues, encouraging students to develop problem-solving skills and learn concepts rather than simply memorize facts.

Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge or skills that students should have at the end of a specific assignment, class, course, or subject.

Academic Achievement: Academic achievement refers to performance outcomes that indicate how far a person has progressed toward specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional settings, such as school, college, and university.


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Tanner, D., and L. Tanner (2007). Curriculum development: Putting theory into action. ( ed.). Pearson Education, New Jersey. Tarhan, L., and B. Acar (2007). “Factors Affecting Cell Potential” problem-based learning in an eleventh-grade chemistry class. Science and Technology Education Research, 25(3), 351-369.


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