RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES FROM 1991-2010

ABSTRACT

This study looks at Sokoto’s rainfall and temperature anomalies from 1991 to 2010. The Sultan Abubakar III International Airport in Sokoto and the Nigerian Metrological Agency (NIMET) provided the information on Sokoto’s monthly rainfall and temperature. For the study period, the trend in annual rainfall amount and mean monthly temperature (minimum and maximum) was fit using simple linear regression and coefficient (r) simple correlation analysis. The statistical package for social science (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. Microsoft Excel was also used to input the data, and a chart or graph was also used to show the trend in annual rainfall amount and mean monthly temperature (min and max) over the study period. In addition, the student’s test used to determine whether the correlation is significant. A thorough analysis of the data revealed a downward trend in annual rainfall but no discernible trend in mean minimum temperature during the study period. However, the years 1991 to 2010 showed an upward trend. According to the study, planting a shelter belt will help reduce the impact of local climate change. The study recommends that further research be done on the effects of climatic variability on human welfare.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The monsoon type of climate is characterized by highly seasonal rainfall in Nigeria, with clearly defined wet and dry seasons. The amount and duration of rainfall decrease from the coast to the interior, with the mean annual total rainfall along the coast decreasing from 4295mm at Bonny in the east to only 5775mm at Lagos in the west. When moving north, the lake Chad basin’s annual rainfall drops to less than 700 mm. Maiduguri (Oguntoyimbo, 1978). The effects of the relief in the interior interrupt the latitudinal falling off in rainfall. The Niger-Benue trough, which is typically on the leeward side of the eastern upland, experiences rainfall that is below average for its latitude, while north of the trough, the Season on the Jos plateau’s southern windward slopes ranges from eight to ten months in the south to less than a month in the far north-western region (Oguntoyimbo, 1978). Only changes in the boundary between the two main air masses that affect West Africa’s climate are responsible for seasonal variation in rainfall. These come from the Atlantic Ocean and the tropical continental (ITD) air mass, which is made up primarily of dry dust from the Sahara Desert. The inter-tropical discontinuity (ITD), which separates these two air masses, is significant because, unlike temperate latitudes, it does not give rise to any specific activities related to the boundary itself. It does, however, separate two distinct terms of weather on either side. Winter in the north is when There is only shallow depth on MT air covering the coastal areas when the ITD is located at about latitude 70N across Nigeria, which leads to sporadic showers in the Niger delta between December and February. The dust-earing CT air mass then has a desiccating effect on the majority of the interior (Oguntoyimbo, 1978) On various time and spatial scales, the distribution of the total amount of rainfall in the tropics has been studied. The annual totals vary significantly from year to year almost everywhere in the tropics, and they also vary significantly by location and the characteristics of the rainfall, such as its intensity, duration, and frequency of raiding. These changes result from  specific macro- and micro-level factors. Rainfall variations on a macro scale are brought on by a variety of factors, frequently in combinations. The inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the amount of time it spends over a particular region are, of course, the most crucial of these (Ayoade, 1978).

CHAPTER ONE

1.1         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The monsoon type of climate is characterized by highly seasonal rainfall in Nigeria, with clearly defined wet and dry seasons. The amount and duration of rainfall decrease from the coast to the interior, with the mean annual total rainfall along the coast decreasing from 4295mm at Bonny in the east to only 5775mm at Lagos in the west. When moving north, the lake Chad basin’s annual rainfall drops to less than 700 mm. Maiduguri (Oguntoyimbo, 1978). The effects of the relief in the interior interrupt the latitudinal falling off in rainfall. The Niger-Benue trough, which is typically on the leeward side of the eastern upland, experiences rainfall that is below average for its latitude, while north of the trough, the Season on the Jos plateau’s southern windward slopes ranges from eight to ten months in the south to less than a month in the far north-western region (Oguntoyimbo, 1978). Only changes in the boundary between the two main air masses that affect West Africa’s climate are responsible for seasonal variation in rainfall. These come from the Atlantic Ocean and the tropical continental (ITD) air mass, which is made up primarily of dry dust from the Sahara Desert. The inter-tropical discontinuity (ITD), which separates these two air masses, is significant because, unlike temperate latitudes, it does not give rise to any specific activities related to the boundary itself. It does, however, separate two distinct terms of weather on either side. Winter in the north is when There is only shallow depth on MT air covering the coastal areas when the ITD is located at about latitude 70N across Nigeria, which leads to sporadic showers in the Niger delta between December and February. The dust-earing CT air mass then has a desiccating effect on the majority of the interior (Oguntoyimbo, 1978) On various time and spatial scales, the distribution of the total amount of rainfall in the tropics has been studied. The annual totals vary significantly from year to year almost everywhere in the tropics, and they also vary significantly by location and the characteristics of the rainfall, such as its intensity, duration, and frequency of raiding. These changes result from specific macro- and micro-level factors. Rainfall variations on a macro scale are brought on by a variety of factors, frequently in combinations. The inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the amount of time it spends over a particular region are, of course, the most crucial of these (Ayoade, 1978).

1.2         AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The primary goal of this research project is to investigate the variations in temperature and rainfall at Sokoto between (1991 – 2010)

1.3         OBJECTIVES OF THIS RESEARCH WORK ARE:

to ascertain the Sokoto rainfall anomaly pattern.

To identify the pattern of temperature anomalies.

Annual trends in temperature and precipitation (maximum and minimum)

 

Leave a Comment