GSM is a digital telephone system that digitizes and compresses data to help wireless mobile devices communicate more quickly (Bunt, 2001). GSM is one of the most widely used digital cellular systems, supporting up to eight concurrent conversations on the same radio frequency using narrowband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (Amos 1999). This type of communication is far superior to analog cellular technology ( GSM is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telecommunication systems, according to Paul (2014). It is based on a time division multiple access (TDMA) variant (TDMA, GSM and DMA). In 2007, over 690 mobile networks in 213 countries provided GSM services, accounting for 82.4 percent of all mobile connections worldwide.

According to GSM world, there are already more than 2 billion GSM mobile phone subscribers worldwide. According to a recent study by the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) secretary general, the world’s mobile subscriptions are expected to reach 4.6 billion by the end of this year (2009). (Softpedia 2009).

One of the platform’s goals was to provide advanced services and capabilities across a single network; to accomplish this, the designers built the architecture on the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) paradigm. 2002 (

GSM services are a collection of standardized applications and features that are available to mobile phone users all over the world. They are the most widely used mobile phone standard in the world. The architecture of the service is relatively difficult because it must be

capable of tracking down a moving phone belonging to the same service anywhere on the planet. Furthermore, the GSM standard includes various capabilities for transmitting digital data. This allows a mobile phone to operate in the same way as any other computer connected to the Internet, transmitting and receiving data via the Internet protocol (Bunt 2001). Furthermore, the mobile device can be connected to a desktop computer, laptop, or Personal digital assistant (PDA) to serve as a network interface (much like a modem or Ethernet card). The rise of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has reduced the world to the size of a village. GSM has accelerated global communication.

A mobile phone, according to Biscker (2002), provides the following:

Internet access with voice calls integrated; (separate facilities)

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Circuit Switched Data, Music Player (Mp3), Calendar Calculator Digital Color Services for Camera Short Messages (SMS), MAPS Weather Channel You Tube Encyclopedia Dictionary, Alarm Clock/Light Clock, and so forth.

The Short Message Service (SMS) language, also known as textese, refers to the acronyms and slang most commonly used in mobile phone text messaging. Because the goal of textese is to use as few letters as possible to convey a meaningful message, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization are mostly ignored. Textse has been criticized for “wrecking our language” by people like John Humphrey, a Welsh journalist.

A television journalist. He describes emoticons and textese as “infuriating” and ultimately lazy behaviors, concluding that “sloppy” habits acquired through the use of textese will lead to students’ increasing misunderstanding of proper language and punctuation” (Biscker 2002).

Several studies have been conducted on the impact of GSM/SMS language on university undergraduates. One example is the collaboration between the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the British Overseers Administration in 1990. (ODA). Chiluwa (2009) of Nigeria’s Covenant University also conducted research on the extent to which text messaging influences Christian value beliefs and attitudes in Nigeria. Similarly, Feuba Wanji Elvis of the University of Yaunde’s Department of English investigated the sociolinguistics of mobile phone SMS usage in Cameroon and Nigeria.

Ezekwesili (2008) also investigated the impact of GSM/ICT on undergraduate writing. All of these studies discovered that SMS coded language has a negative impact on the English language.


Academics refer to GSM/SMS, Internet/e-mail communication technologies as a paradigm shift away from traditional English language writing (Cross 2012). The question is how GSM/SMS and internet/e-mail communication platforms affect English language acquisition.

English is studied as a second language in Nigeria, which presents significant challenges; however, the rise of GSM/SMS and e-mail communication systems complicates the process of learning English due to the interference qualities introduced by this new development. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the difficulties encountered when English is used as a second language at school.

various degrees of linguistic usage. There is a wealth of research on the phonological and syntactic difficulties that English language learners face in second language situations, but growing trends in GSM/SMS and e-mail communication systems add to these difficulties (Cross 2012). Despite the fact that emerging trends have received a lot of attention, little research has been done on their impact on the structure and general development of the English language among secondary school students. And that is precisely what this effort aims to accomplish.

While there may be scattered comments, the goal of this project is to conduct a comprehensive study of SMS and English language use in selected secondary schools.


The primary goal of this research is to investigate the impact of SMS.

and the use of English in a few secondary schools. This study specifically aims to:

i. Determine the extent to which SMS is used in the study of English in selected secondary schools.

ii. Determine whether SMS has influenced the use of English in a sample of secondary schools.

iii. Investigate the impact of using SMS to teach English in selected secondary schools.

iv. Determine whether using SMS to teach English in selected secondary schools has an impact on academic performance.


This study will address the following research questions:

i. How widely is SMS used in the study of English language in selected secondary schools?

ii. Has SMS influenced the use of English in certain secondary schools?


What is the impact of SMS-based English language instruction in selected secondary schools?

iv. Does using SMS to teach English in selected secondary schools have an effect on academic performance?


The identification of the effect of SMS communication on the English language development of secondary school students is significant in the following ways:

i. It will show the extent to which the SMS communication system influences students’ English performance.

ii. It will provide teachers with the tools they need to meet today’s youth’s massive and ever-changing demand for information and education; it will assist parents in deciphering some text-message abbreviations designed to confuse their comprehension of certain contents, such as “CPC,” which stands for

“Keep Parents In the Dark,” and will also help them monitor their children’s English performance.

iii. It will help learners rein in their excessive use of GSM/SMS, the Internet, and e-mail; and it will make second language teachers aware of the problems caused by students’ unbridled reliance on SMS and its negative impact on their writing abilities.

iv. Finally, this study will be useful to scholars and researchers because it will provide existing material for future studies and references.


This study will investigate the impact of SMS and English language use in a sample of secondary schools. It will specifically investigate the extent to which SMS is used in the study of English.

in selected secondary schools, determining whether SMS has influenced the use of English language in selected secondary schools, investigating the impact of using SMS to teach English language in selected secondary schools, and determining whether the use of SMS to teach English language in selected secondary schools has an effect on academic performance.

Respondents for this study will be teachers and students from selected secondary schools in Lokoja, Kogi State.

As with any human endeavor, the researcher encountered minor challenges while conducting the study. Because of the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the nature of the discourse, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information.

in the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Furthermore, the researcher conducted this investigation in addition to other academic activities. Furthermore, because only a few respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the research constraints, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


SMS is a text messaging service that is available on most telephone, Internet, and mobile device systems. It employs standardized communication protocols that allow mobile devices to send and receive short text messages. An intermediary service can make text-to-voice conversion possible.

Text messages are sent to landlines.

English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that was originally spoken by the people of early medieval England.


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