1.1Background of the Study

Parents have the greatest single effect on their children’s development globally, in two distinct ways. Parents act as socializing agents by providing goals and a value system from which the child learns various behavioral patterns. In some cases, parents take an unconcerned attitude toward their children’s learning and even their social orientation, resulting in low academic achievement and maladaptive behaviors in their immediate community (Hake, 2019). Ndubuisi (2015) discovered a link between parental attitudes and their children’s social orientation and academic success to support this. Ndubuisi believes that the dimensions of value placed on their children’s well-being by their parents, whether positive or negative, have a significant impact on the child’s positive or negative adaptation to his/her society, as well as the manner in which he/she carries out his/her responsibilities. At school, students must complete academic assignments. Many factors, both inside and outside of the school system, contribute to a child’s educational development, either directly or indirectly. Genetics and environment both have an impact on these variables. Many psychologists, including Freud and Adler, now emphasize the importance of the environment over inheritance in the overall development of the child. Craft et al. (2020) improved our understanding of the relationship between a child’s home environment and academic achievement in school. A child is a product of society as well as a reflection of it. While the school administers the formal educational system, the home provides both formal and informal educational experiences. Many psychologists have advocated for making a child’s immediate surroundings (home) extremely important. exciting in order to promote intellectual growth and academic success. According to Locke (1970), as cited in Ismail (2018), every child is born with a blank slate, and what fills the vacuum is determined by the environment in which they grow. This is what he meant when he said “Tabula Rasa.” In other words, where we live can either enhance or detract from what we inherited from our parents. According to Mudock and Mudock (2004), as cited in Adeola (2020), the first six years of a child’s life are critical because anything that goes wrong during this period has a long-term impact on the child as he grows. Personal qualities and mental health of the child are formed during this early stage. The child learns to How to love and be loved, as well as how to deal with sibling rivalry. If the environment is not conducive, the child will develop feelings of hatred and violence at this age. This early socialization process is important because it allows a child to adjust to environments other than his or her own. Similarly, psychologists and sociologists such as Jersild (2015) and Hurlock (2016) believe that if good foundations for fundamental skill acquisition are not laid early in life, learning becomes difficult later in life because it is frequently unsuccessful. Joyce and colleagues (2015) have long established that in effective schools that provide high-quality education, there is usually frequent and primarily positive communication between the school and parents, such as on award days. and parent days, as well as two-way communication, with parents frequently initiating contact with the school. This should include parents participating in school reform activities and monitoring accountability initiatives. Parents can help achieve this by serving on the school’s standing and ad hoc special committees and boards, such as the special events committee, disciplinary committee, and governing board. As a result, parents gain firsthand knowledge of the school’s needs and challenges and can work with the school to address them (Aloe, 2016). Importantly, teachers have a difficult job and would appreciate it if anyone supported and recognized their efforts. According to Iheanyi (2016), when parents have the necessary knowledge and abilities related to the school curriculum, they can serve as information sources, audiences for school academic activities, and facilitators of school academic activities. and/or classroom assistants. There appears to be substantial evidence that parental involvement in homework and assignments may improve children’s academic performance. Parental favorable and cooperative attitudes toward school development have been shown to improve children’s school learning outcomes. Good attendance at PTA meetings, bringing children to school on time, paying fees on time, requiring children to finish homework on time, and parents visiting the school on a regular basis to check on their children’s development are all examples of such parental behaviors. 1.2Statement of the Issue The importance of parents’ low socioeconomic status and its impact on their children’s academic ability cannot be overstated. The majority of parents in Nigeria today are impoverished and unemployed. This can be attributed to the country’s disastrous economic situation. status, as well as the global economic downturn. As a result, Onyenani (2018) claims that parents do not have enough money to support themselves and their children. The vast majority of Nigerian parents do not fulfill their responsibility to send their children to school. Many of them do not provide adequate care for their children in school because they do not have the financial resources to cover or cover their children’s school costs. As a result, many children whose parents are poor are frequently absent from school, and the majority of the children have dropped out. These parents do not purchase required textbooks for their children or pay for other school-related expenses (Jimoh, 2016). Furthermore, underprivileged children are not adequately cared for. For example, children from low-income families. For example, they do not get enough nutrition before and after school. As a result, the vast majority of them arrive at school on an empty stomach and fail to pay attention in class. A child requires good nutrition to supplement cognition, according to Hawawu (2021), but poor children do not receive adequate feeding, let alone a balanced diet. Children with impoverished parents are expected to live in a hostile environment in which they are unable to read freely and lack access to study resources that will allow them to complete important academic work. As a result of these factors, the children perform poorly in school. This research was required as a result of the aforementioned issues. 1.3 The Goals of

the Research The primary goal of this study was to conduct a critical analysis of socioeconomic status and its impact on students’ academic performance. The study’s specific objectives are as follows: i. To investigate whether parents’ income status influences their children’s academic orientation. ii. To determine whether parental involvement in take-home assignments influences their children’s learning outcomes. iii. To determine whether the level of education of the parents influences the academic performance of the students. iv. To determine whether a parent’s occupation and involvement affects a student’s academic achievement. 1.4Research Issues

The following research question guides the study:

v. Does a parent’s socioeconomic status influence their children’s academic orientation? vi. Does parental involvement in take-home assignments influence their children’s learning outcomes? vii. Does the educational level of parents influence student academic performance? viii. Is it true? What effect does a parent’s occupation and involvement have on a student’s academic achievement? 1.5 Importance of the Research This research will be extremely beneficial to the various segments and groups of people in society. As an example: This study will benefit students because its findings and recommendations will help them recognize that they require parental care and positive values in order to be successful in school and in society as a whole. It will make students more tolerant of parental control and care. This study would also benefit parents because it would enable them to be more involved in their children’s upbringing if they want them to be successful in both academics and in life. This research will enlighten

Parents on the best methods for raising a child at home. Teachers would benefit from this study because it would educate them on how to best train their children at home and at school as surrogate parents. The society will undoubtedly benefit from this study because it will teach adults that the parental value system has something to do with the child’s behavior and academic success in school. Empirically, the study will contribute to the general body of knowledge and serve as a resource for students and scholars interested in conducting additional research in a related field. 1.6 The Study’s Scope

This study’s scope borders on

A critical examination of socioeconomic status and its impact on student academic performance. Other factors discussed include parents’ income, level of involvement, support, and occupation, as well as their relative influence on student academic orientation. The study, however, is limited to a selected secondary school in Delta state’s Asaba Local Government Area.


The researchers encountered minor constraints while conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject because it is a new discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sources.

The sample size was limited to secondary schools in the Asaba Local Government Area of Delta State. As a result, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to other junior schools in other Nigerian states. Furthermore, the researcher’s involvement in this study while also working on other academic projects will impede maximum dedication to the research. Nonetheless, despite the constraints encountered during the research, all factors were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research a success.

1.8Terms Definition

In this study, operational definitions of terms were provided. Almost all of the variables in the study were defined in this manner.

Parents: This refers to our father, mother, or ancestors, such as our first parents (Adam and Eve).

Students are people who are enrolled in a college, polytechnic, or university.

or university; a boy or girl in school; anyone who studies or is interested in gaining knowledge.

Academic performance refers to the level or rate at which students perform academically in school. It also shows the level at which students complete their schoolwork in a given period of time, as well as the outcome. Socioeconomic Status: This refers to an individual’s social stratification in a given society. It is the socioeconomic division between members of society.



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