The greatest enemy and greatest evil is illiteracy, which keeps people in the dark and enslaves them to their customs and superstitions. It also makes people resistant to change and novel ideas, cutting them off from advancement and rendering them unable to meet the demands of their changing environment and rapidly evolving society (Omolewa, 1985). Many nations around the world are currently concerned about the education of girls. Girl children experience discrimination, which makes it difficult for them to exercise their rights. They also suffer from a variety of traditional and cultural practices, are degraded, are objects of poverty, have their voices unheard and are perceived as inferior to their male counterparts. in the dining room. Numerous unfavorable behaviors and attitudes are communicated to girls (Jatau, 1999). In order to free the girl-child from all of these negative influences, a strong education is necessary. Her education will empower her to think critically, lift her out of poverty, and advance both her and the nation in which she lives. Through education, the girl child can grow into a self-sufficient adult with greater autonomy over her life. Women carry a disproportionately large share of the burden of nation-building, claims Esomonu (1999). She continues, “We need women to create happy homes, have educated, well-behaved children, and only after these things can the mission of nation building be successful. The start of this will be the education of young girls. Abacha (1997) emphasizes the importance of educating girls while expressing his support for the idea that long-term, participatory development is necessary. “We must create a Nigeria made up of a unified people with a unified purpose if we are to make progress,” he said. “Our country needs men and women who are courageous, inventive, passionate, and committed, people who place the highest value on honor, service, and patriotism.” These people are required in a variety of fields, including politics, business, traditional institutions, youth organizations, academia, and other occupations. According to the aforementioned statement, society should stop treating women like second-class citizens and start treating them like first-class citizens (Adedokun, 2000). The girl child, when she grows up to be a woman, shall be educated, strong, and resourceful in order to make the greatest possible contribution to the survival and development of the society in which she lives. According to Alkali (2000), cited in Olufunke, “women may lead, lead to war, and if required fight for her society and win for her people” if all stifling restrictions on them are lifted (2010). Adedokun contends that educating female children will increase their social awareness, assertiveness, and awareness of how to participate in the development of their country (2010). Therefore, it is crucial to give female children’s education special attention. Finding the right solution to the problem of girl education advances not only the girl but also the nation ahead. The topic deserves a high rating due to the advantages of educating female children. Henerald (1995) asserts that there are overlapping socio-economic and socio-cultural factors that affect female education in the community and at home. Due to these factors, there is a low social demand for female education and a consequent low investment in female education. Oladunni (1996) claims that the girl is a victim of norms and traditions that keep her permanently disabled. She asserts that early marriage prevents her from attending school and endangers her life by leading to early pregnancies and difficult childbirths, as well as offensive widowhood rites, male preference, and other harmful traditional practices, all of which make a girl-child a lesser human being and more vulnerable. Lack information is yet another element. Poor health is a result of having limited purchasing power, low earning potential, and various forms of discrimination.

Statement of the problem: 1.2

Because of their biological sex, girls and women worldwide—particularly in Africa and Nigeria—have had their fates predetermined from birth by tradition and culture (Olufunke, 2000). The term “weaker sex” has been used to explain gender inequality and abuse of women. They are required to maintain silence from dawn until dusk as they carry children, cut wood, and draw water. They can be seen but not heard during decision-making in both private and public settings. Because of the male-defined codes of conduct and behavior in society, the girl child maintains her natural status as a thing to be possessed and commoditized (Odaga, 1998). As a result, tradition places restrictions on women’s rights. custom and the chauvinism of the male patriarchy. Without the necessary human capital, no community can remain underdeveloped, and making investments in human capital is the best way to advance any culture (Richardson, 2009). This is because the knowledge and abilities attained will guarantee the person’s economic and social freedom as well as their capacity to support societal and national progress (Efe, 2001). The most pernicious cankerworm that has eaten deep into us and prevented the implementation of numerous promising projects in developing countries is illiteracy. Illiteracy and poverty go hand in hand. Due to the unfortunate fact that women are more likely than men to be illiterate, illiterate mothers will likely have illiterate daughters who will most likely marry young and lack access to education. if their husbands are uncooperative, education (Henerald, 1995). The girl child is frequently the target of prejudice from infancy through adolescence and adulthood. Her low social status is reflected in the denial of fundamental rights and needs, as well as negative attitudes and behaviors like favoring sons, early marriage, female genital mutilation, domestic violence, incest, and sexual exploitation, discrimination, and restricted access to food and education. 40% of Nigerian children between the ages of 6 and 11 do not attend any primary school, with the Northern region having the lowest enrollment rates nationwide, particularly for female students. Over 4.7 million children of primary school age are expected to be out of school despite a marked improvement in net enrollment rates in recent years.

education in Nigeria (UNICEF Report, 2005).


The main objective of the study is to ascertain how socio-cultural issues affect the education of girls in Oyo State. The study specifically aims to:

i. Identify and investigate the social and cultural norms that have an impact on the empowerment of girls.

ii. Look into the various sociocultural factors that affect the educational opportunities for girls.

iii. Investigate how the girl child perceives discrimination in the home and community.

iv. Look into how cultural values affect the education of girls.

Research questions (1.4)

i. What social and cultural factors are currently at play in the empowerment of girls?

What are the various sociocultural factors that have an impact on girls’ educational opportunities?

and in the neighborhood?

iv. Is there any proof that cultural values have an effect on the education of female children?


This study will help Oyo State stakeholders in the education sector address issues involving girls. In order to provide Oyo’s rural population with fair and suitable educational opportunities, it is also anticipated that the Oyo State Ministry of Education will find this study helpful in developing their educational budget. Because of the findings and recommendations of this study, guardians in Oyo State may be better informed about their responsibilities to ensure that female children receive an education. Additionally, it is anticipated that this will enhance the education of female children, enabling them to contribute to the development of Oyo State. This research will give social workers, decision-makers,

Identifying some of the socio-cultural factors influencing the education of female children will help community members, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations come up with solutions for this problem at the grassroots level. This study will also highlight the benefits of educating girls for a better society in the future, not just for ourselves but also for those who will come after us.


The young women of Oyo State are the subject of this study. Furthermore, Oyo respondents will be the main focus due to the complexity of the research. This is because the researcher won’t be able to conduct a census survey across the entire state due to the state’s complicated geography.


This investigation looked at various areas in Kaduna State and saw to it that inquiries were made throughout the research.


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