Waterborne diseases have been a major public health concern around the world due to the burden they impose on humans. As a result, the current study aimed to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of waterborne diseases using Kwara State as a case study. Primary and secondary data sources included a questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, interviews, and published and unpublished works. In this study, a multi-stage sampling method was used. The sample size was determined using a four-stage sampling method. According to the National Population Commission (1991), the mean household size in Kwara State (as of the 1991 population census) was 4.7 for the selected settlements. In total, 353 households from the three senatorial districts were sampled. Kwara South Senatorial District consists of

Kwara North Senatorial District has the most households (127), while Kwara Central Senatorial District has 118 and 108, respectively. Data from focus groups, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, and other sources were analyzed using the t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Correlation Analysis to test the stated hypotheses. To establish the relationship in the mean sex perception of waterborne diseases in the study area, the t-test was used. Using tcal =

There was a significant difference in the mean sex perception of waterborne diseases examined in the study area (3.6732 > t0.05, = 1.96, and 0.0341 0.05). Similarly, ANOVA was employed.

to establish the relationship in the mean perception of waterborne diseases among other socio-demographic variables such as age, income and educational qualification in the study area. The findings revealed that there is

As fcal = 4.765 >, there is a significant relationship between the examined waterborne diseases and socio-demographic variables in the study area.

f0.05,(3,559) = 2.62 and 0.0356 < 0.05. Descriptive statistics were also used to determine the perceptions of the six waterborne diseases across the three senatorial districts.

districts of the study area. The findings revealed no differences in the prevalence and occurrence of waterborne diseases in Kwara state. Finally, Correlation Analysis was used to establish the relationship between the prevalence and occurrence of waterborne diseases in the study area’s senatorial districts. The findings revealed that waterborne diseases are more prevalent in Kwara North than in Kwara South and Central. This trend could be linked to the level of self-help in Kwara. South, as well as the availability of water infrastructure at Kwara Central, the state’s seat of government. The study concluded that the study’s available potable water is insufficient, and the few that are available are dysfunctional, as indicated by a p-value of.008 0.05 level of significance at a correlation level of 0.530 at 22 df. This may be related to the challenges of the socioeconomic sector’s retardancy, which has resulted in inaccessibility to safe water. In light of the foregoing, the study concluded that prioritization of potable water, early detection of waterborne diseases, effective socioeconomic programs, and relevant environmental education are critical in reducing the threat of waterborne diseases not only in the study area, but throughout Nigeria.




Waterborne diseases are a major public health concern due to the burden they impose on humans. Pathogenic microorganisms that are most commonly transmitted in contaminated fresh water cause waterborne diseases (Wikipedia, free Online). According to this school of thought, waterborne diseases can occur as a result of bathing, washing, drinking, food preparation, or consumption of contaminated food. Thus, waterborne diseases can be defined as any illness caused by coming into contact with or drinking contaminated water. Water-related diseases account for 88.0% of all infectious diseases worldwide and 90.0% of all infectious diseases in developing countries, according to the World Health Organization-WHO (2012a).


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