STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY RATE

ABSTRACT

The study “analysis on infant and child mortality in federal medical center (f.m.c) Keffi” was conducted to test for the difference of two means between infant and child mortality rates, estimate infant and child mortality rates, estimate age specific fertility rates, and determine the trend line and forecast of infant and child mortality. The data for the study was gathered using a documentary method and analyzed using time series analysis, difference of two means (Two sample T-test), and mortality and fertility measures. The study concluded that the incidence of child and infant mortality has been decreasing from 2001 to 2015. It was also discovered that there is no statistically significant difference in the Infant and child mortality are both common. The researcher recommended that the government organize a yearly interval workshop in order to enlighten people on infant and child health care, that all individuals avoid personal medication, that all cases of illness be reported to a medical expert, especially when it comes to children because their immune system is more volatile, and that the government create an awareness campaign to educate the public on how to report all causes of death.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Infant mortality is the death of a child before the age of one, while child mortality is the death of a child between the ages of one and five. Demographers have long been intrigued by the study of mortality, which is one component of population change. Infant and child mortality are among the best indicators of socioeconomic development because the survival chances of infants and children determine a society’s life expectancy at birth.

Childhood mortality is an important indicator for all health programs and policies, as well as population projections. Measures of childhood mortality also aid in identifying specific populations at increased health risk. The Demographic Health Survey is used to calculate several measures of childhood mortality. (DHS) information. Almost all countries saw decreases in child mortality rates during the twentieth century. The timing and rate of the decline, on the other hand, varied greatly. Sustained reductions in child mortality began in Europe, North America, and Japan in the nineteenth century and continued gradually throughout the twentieth. Other parts of the world saw significant declines only after World War II. Mortality declines in Asia, Latin America, and Africa were typically much faster than in countries that began mortality declines earlier. By 1999, child mortality rates varied greatly between countries; for example, while less than 0.5 percent of children died before their fifth birthday in Iceland, more than 33 percent died by the age of five in Niger. Since

The decline in child mortality appeared to have stalled in the 1960s, as it did from 1975 to 1985, when many poor countries faced severe crises and other problems, such as economic recovery from the 0.1 crisis of 1973-74. According to recent evidence, child mortality has continued to fall in most countries since 1980. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic halted or reversed declines in child mortality in some eastern and southern African countries during the 1990s. In Zimbabwe, for example, there were 50 deaths under the age of five per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 1994.

As a result, statistics is defined as the science of information analysis or the scientific method of collecting, presenting, organizing, and interpreting numerical data in such a way that it is valid and useful.

To eliminate uncertainties, a conclusion will be reached. Demography is one of the aspects that it implies in many aspects of studies and life in general. Demography is the study of human population and the factors that influence it. These are fertility, morbidity mortality, and so on, but the focus of these projects will be on analyzing infant and child mortality rates among various age groups, as well as how genders are related to death in a specific age group.

General Hospital Keffi was the former name of the Federal Medical Center Keffi (FMC). It is located in the town center, along the old Akwanga road; it was upgraded to its current status as Federal Medical Center (FMC) during former Senator Dr. (Alh) Abdullahi’s first democratic government. In 2003, Adamu, the Sarkin Yakin Keffi, and the Aare Obateru of the source. The hospital had a staff capacity of 1687 and a bed capacity of 774 at the time. Currently, the Federal Medical Center (FMC) Keffi employs over 3687 people and has approximately 1200 beds available. FMC was built to provide easy access to good medical facilities for its populace (Nasarawa State) and the people of Nigeria at large.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Infant and child mortality has been a major source of concern for both the government and individuals. The need for policies that can adequately arrest the situation cannot be met without a thorough understanding of the available dates. This research will look into critical issues such as infant mortality, child mortality, and age-specific fertility. It will also consider the trend of infant and child mortality, as well as the differences between them, at the Federal Medical Centre Keffi.

1.3       AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.3.1    AIM

To examine the reported cases of infant and child mortality in FMC Keffi.

1.3.2    OBJECTIVES

To examine the difference between two means of infant and child mortality rates.
To calculate the infant and child mortality rate.
To calculate the age-specific fertility rate.
To determine the infant and child mortality trend line and forecast.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study’s findings are expected to greatly assist Nasarawa State in determining the extent to which several measures put in place have been effective in lowering mortality rates in Nasarawa States.

The findings will also help the government develop specific policies to reduce infant and child mortality rates.

1.5       DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The number of deaths considered in this study is two: infant and child mortality in Federal Medical Centre Keffi, Nasarawa State.

 1.6       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Time constraints and financial issues were encountered while obtaining data from the medical center during the course of the research work.

1.7       HYPOTHESES OF RESEARCH QUESTION

In FMC Keffi, there is no significant difference in infant and child mortality rates.

In FMC Keffi, there is a significant difference in infant and child mortality rates.

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Neonatal Mortality: The likelihood of death within the first month of life.

Infant Mortality: The likelihood of dying before reaching the age of one.

Child Mortality: The likelihood of dying before reaching the age of five.

Crude Death Rate: This is the most basic and widely used measure of mortality; it is defined as the number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people in the middle of the population, i.e.

D/P x k = CDR

Where;

D is the number of deaths in a given year.

P = mid-year total population

K stands for constant.

Age Specific Death Rate: This is the number of deaths in a given age group per thousand (1000) people in a given year. It is usually compared between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Though infants are usually given special consideration due to their small size,

There are numerous death rates, so separate rates are usually shown for the group.

Between the ages of one and four years.

ASDR=

Where;

is the number of deaths in a given year, for example, 0 — 4 months

is the total population aged 0 — 4 months in the middle of the year, and K is the constant.

Cause Specific Death Rate: This is the number of deaths from a given cause or group of causes in a given year per ten thousand of the mid-year population. A larger constant is used because many of the causes have relatively few deaths.

 

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