chapter One

1.1 Research background

A motion picture, also called a motion picture or motion picture film, is a series of still images or moving images that use animation techniques or visual effects. Film also refers to a series of images projected onto a screen to create the illusion of motion.

The origins of cinema can be traced back over 700 years. Mark-Peter Roger laid the foundation for what we now call cinema when he introduced the principle of “persistence of vision” in 1824.

Film stories are often oversimplified and cannot be attributed to a single person. Each inventor contributed to the progress of the other inventor. The experimental era was witnessed in the 19th century by American and French scientists who conducted experiments and achieved remarkable success in developing images.

In the 1800s, as magic lanterns became more popular, people in Europe and America wanted to be able to use magic lanterns in their homes. In fact, no 18th-century dinner party would be complete without a magic lantern presentation. Various image projection devices have been developed for home enjoyment. These are small devices called traveling toys that are very different from regular magic lanterns. All of these devices have their origins in scientific experiments. One of these experiments was based on a new concept (18th century) called visual persistence. This means that the eye retains the image even after its source of possession is removed. This idea prompted various efforts to build a mechanism that could convert separate still images into a single film frame. From these concepts came many inventions for projecting images. Below is a list of their respective authors. tote rope:
Created by John Ayton in Paris in 1862. This was a circular card attached to a string, with an image of a horse on one side and an image of a man on a cowgirl on the other.

Created by several different inventors in the early 1800s. This was a platter-sized platter on which the image sequence was rotated. Those who looked through the sloth in this device saw the video. Zoetrope:
Developed by several inventors in the 1860s, it was very similar to Phenakist’s scope. It was a bowl-like device with a piece of painting painted on the inside. As the bowl turned, viewers saw the surface through the keyword zoetrope, as Francis Ford Copra used that name for his own production company and studio work.

Practice range:
Developed by Emile Reynaud in the early 1870s. It’s almost the same as the zoetrope, just using a mirror. The first film was made in 1872 by a man named Edward Muybridge. He started experimenting with capturing video. This guy placed his 12 cameras on the racetrack, spread a thread across the track, and secured the thread against the shutter of the camera. As soon as the barrel crossed the track, his leg broke the thread and the cameras in turn kicked in. The end result was 12 photographs of him showing the horse’s gait. It’s worth an invention called Zoepraxisco, where he can quickly project these images into what is known as motion photography, and later existed among all the competition from the man who developed Praxiniskop in the first film. did.

The kinegraph was developed by William Kennedy Laurie Dixon, a British collaborator of Thomas Edison. It was a machine that could capture a series of images similar to a camera, except it automatically captured a frame of video every 0.5 seconds.

The image was placed on another of his inventions, the kinescope. The device had a motor and a short mechanism that passed through a loop of film taped to an electronic light source. Viewers can see the light bulb through a small window and see moving images. After these two inventions were made, the Lumiere brothers (August and Louis) created a lightweight, hand-cranked mechanism called cinematography. Connect to the familiar projection device from the Magic Lantern Show to take pictures and quickly project large images.

With cinematography invented, German, British, Italian, British and American inventors were “right behind them”. The race for the next great invention that could surpass anything ever created in the history of cinema has intensified. The shift in cinema into the 1900s was fueled by increased competition among many inventors, the ease of reproducibility of film, the ability to use propaganda in film, and the general fascination with growing cities. . Another person who greatly contributed to the development of cinema was D.W. Griffin, writer, actor and cinematographer. He introduced every element found in filmmaking today, planning rehearsals before the final script and even planning his close-up shots. His famous film The Birth of a Nation (1915) was his three-hour epic, attended by more than 1,000 people and cost around $125,000 to produce.

According to evidence and records, the film was first brought to Nigeria in 1903 through the efforts of the late Herbert Macaulay, who invited the Balboa and Company theater troupe, who were coming to the coast of West Africa at the time, to exhibit their work at the time. did. silent movie. The film was shown at the Glover Memorial Hall. The project was a huge success and paved the way for further exhibitions of European cinema in Nigeria.

Ekwashi (1987:
9) reports that shortly thereafter the colonial government took an interest and brought many foreign films to Nigeria. rice field.

According to Ekwuasi (1984), these films had to compete with stage concerts and drama shows, and within a short time their content was subject to high drama censorship, and this new culture began to spread inside and outside Lagos. . As the country grew in industry, it needed to put in place structures to support its spread and effective distribution. According to Nweke (1995), distribution and exhibition centers had to be established in these new areas.

World War 11 increased the colonial government’s involvement in the film business, creating the Colonial Film Authority (CFU) under the banner of the Ministry of Information to produce “propaganda” films and aid Nigeria in the war effort. I worked hard. .

Another key point in the development of the film was the introduction of units. was the result of achieving.

1.2 Problem Description

Those who make films were seen as custodians of culture, and early Nigerian video films reflected Nigerian culture and society. , harassment, pornography, and other acts of violence that can bring negativity into an individual’s life, and the majority of these films have been charged with various charges. A form of violence (condemned by society) that clearly imprints negative influences or human behavior to find the segments where the video film is shot.

Some parents, educators, and other organizations are concerned about keeping individuals away from the dangers of violent videos, and that children watching movies such as drug addiction, murder, horror, ritual, and pornography may We are mobilizing forces to critically question what we are learning. violence.

The main criticisms of movies, especially violent movies, are the depiction of aggression and the message people think the movie conveys. Individuals think they are mediating them. Take charge and belong to your life. Half-naked or indecent clothing by men and women, rape, gun use, gang membership, robbery, suicide, armed robbery, prostitution, etc. Constant exposure to violent movies is thought to teach and enhance a person’s physical and emotional arousal. Increases likelihood of aggressive behavior.

A major concern in the discussion about violent films was whether researchers showed that frequent exposure to on-screen violence could cause problems among viewers, especially young people ( Evra 1990). For example, we may fear the world around us or accept real-life violence that others have shown us.

Other views that argue that violent films have a cleansing effect suggest that the effect of violent films on individuals is the art of being compassionate after watching such violent films. increase. However, these views are aware of the impact of violence on video. These views need to be explored, analyzed, compared and presented before any sensible conclusions can be drawn about video violence in Nigeria and its impact on individual lives and learning. Even more troubling in a long-term study, Leonard Enron, a psychologist at the University of Illinois, looked at an 8-year-old and his 18-year-old. He found that television and movie habits took hold by the age of eight and influenced aggressive behavior during childhood and adolescence. The more violent the third grade boys liked the program, the more aggressive their behavior became, both then and he ten years later. Thus, he concluded that “the effects of television violence on aggression are cumulative.” Twenty years later, Eron and Rowell Hussmann found the pattern perfect. He and his researchers found that children who had seen large amounts of violence on television by age 8 were more likely to have committed violent crimes and been involved in child and spousal abuse by age 30


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