The study looked into the psychosocial effects of orphans and vulnerable children being institutionalized in Oyo state. The specific objectives were to determine the inmates’ socio-demographic characteristics, to determine the psychological and social effects of institutionalization on these children, to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of institutionalization with reference to the selected institutions, and to identify the emotional and behavioral problems associated with institutionalization of orphans and vulnerable children.

The research looked at two theories of institutionalization: rational choice theory and psychosocial development. The study used primary data to collect data from respondents via a structured questionnaire.

The study found that psychological factors such as self-concept, attitudes, depression, stress, and a history of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well as social factors such as social support, parenting style, and low socioeconomic status, all play a significant role in the institutionalization of orphaned and vulnerable children.

Orphans and vulnerable children should be properly catered for and cared for by the government and non-governmental organizations, according to the study. Particularly for children with a history of psychological distress, proper psychological and social assistance should be organized. More monies should be dedicated to the well-being of children, particularly those in orphanages; Those children in the orphanage should be supported.




The child is highly valued in Nigerian society, not only by parents, but also by the family, the community at large, and the government (Okunola 2001). It is also a cultural norm that the child’s care and upbringing is shared by the entire family and community. However, in the last few decades, the family’s composition and structure, as well as its functions, have changed to the point that the conventional protection supplied by the family is fading.

There are children who do not have the benefits of suitable and stable homes due to mother abandonment, parent death, single parenthood, or the death or long absence of one of the parents from home due to a variety of reasons. Early experiences shape a child’s future psychological, emotional, and social functioning as an individual in maturity. Children’s psychosocial wellbeing can be sabotaged by painful and negative childhood experiences. Children’s ability, intellect, productivity, and social usefulness are all influenced by their psychosocial well-being. Orphans suffer from sadness, anxiety, depression, a lack of support, and a lack of care. Losing a parent can cause children to experience negative psychosocial impacts such as feelings of inferiority, shame, remorse, insecurity, and inappropriate behavior.


According to Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, the country’s orphans and vulnerable children number 17.5 million. Children suffer huge health and development obstacles, and it is estimated that 95% of orphans and vulnerable children receive no medical, emotional, social, material, or school-related help (National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria, and ICF International 2013). Even after researchers discovered that institutional care is unsuitable and the least expensive choice for the continuum of care, it continues to be used. It is thus the second best option for youngsters who require care.

Orphans and fragile children are typically cared for in institutional facilities run by the government or private organizations, which provide some sense of order in their lives. Individuals neglect the psychological requirements of children in order to effectively care for their worldly demands. Institutional care, according to international and national children’s rights organizations, jeopardizes and deprives children of their future. They also claim that child care facilities are dangerous to children’s psychosocial, emotional, and, in some circumstances, physical well-being.

Overcrowding, insufficient personal attention, a bad academic environment, and frequent moves may all damage the mental health of these children at these institutions.


Overarching Goal:

The study’s overall goal is to look into the psychosocial impacts of institutionalization on orphans and vulnerable children in Oyo State’s institutions.

Precise Aims: The study’s specific objectives are as follows:

Determine the inmates’ socio-demographic characteristics.
To investigate the psychological impact of these children’s institutionalization
To measure the societal impact of these children’s institutionalization
With reference to the chosen institutions, to illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of institutionalization.
To identify the emotional and behavioral issues that orphans and vulnerable children face when they are institutionalized.


The following inquiries were made:

What are the children’s socio-demographic features in the chosen homes?
Is there a psychological impact on children who are institutionalized?
Is there a social impact on children who are institutionalized?
What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of institutionalization?
What behavioral and emotional issues arise as a result of institutionalization?
How well-equipped are the institutions for children’s psychological and emotional needs?


The following are some of the study’s hypotheses:

1. The socio-demographic features of the children in the chosen homes show no discernible trend.


2. There is no link between children’s psychological well-being and their placement in institutions.


3. There is no significant link between institutionalization and children’s social circumstances.


The purpose of this study is to determine the psychosocial impact of committing orphans and vulnerable youngsters to the care of a specialized facility.

This study will benefit both governmental and non-governmental groups since it will bring to their attention the unattended psychosocial health of children, rather than just the provision of materialistic items, and will assist them in dealing with this problem.

This study will aid school counselors and social workers so that they are aware of underlying concerns while working with delinquent, hazardous, or substance-abusing youth.


This research will look into the varied psychosocial consequences on orphans and vulnerable children in Oyo State’s formal institutional care settings. To make the study more robust, ten orphanage homes were used (Arrow of God Orphanage, Mercy and love Orphanage, Peculiar Saints orphanage, Olive bloom orphanage, Love home orphanage, Vigilant heart orphanage, Royal diamond orphanage, Citadel of grace mission, Heritage homes orphanage, Destiny child orphanage).


1. Psychosocial: A term that refers to both the psychological and social aspects of a situation.

Psychological: pertaining to the respondents’ state of mind
Social: refers to the respondents’ relationships with others.
2. Institutionalization: providing a formal residential care facility for children who require care, protection, and supervision.

3. Orphanages and children’s homes: these are government-run institutions (public) or

Non-governmental agencies (private) to provide care, protection, and support to orphans and vulnerable children.

4. Orphans and Vulnerable Children: includes not only children who are biologically orphans following parental death, but also children considered vulnerable to shocks that jeopardize their health and well-being, such as the chronic illness of a parent, or other household factors


A. Makuyana and S. M Kang’ethe. Care Institutions for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC):

Exploring the Potential Harm to Children in a Few Developing Countries

J. Soc. Sci., 38(2), 117-124. (2014).

RAPIDS, K. Schenk, L. Ndhlovu, S. Tembo, A. Nsune, and C. Nkhata. Who are the people who are most vulnerable?

children? Exploring the implications of different criteria for determining eligibility for

support with the program


Exploring Future Investments in Nutrition, Social Change, and Behavior Change

Communication. Arlington, VA: Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in

Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project.

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