Structural, civil engineering, and heavy construction projects have contributed significantly to the development of the country by the construction industry. Buildings are central to any infrastructure development and are designed to provide citizens with inherently safe and comfortable housing for residential, commercial and industrial activity within enclosures freed from the whims of an open environment. (Amobi, 2009). Emmitt et al. (2005) further emphasized the basic requirements and performance of buildings to achieve:


i) Adaptability and durability.
ii) serviceability (routine repair and replacement);

iii) Ability to recycle materials and components.
iv) thermal and acoustic performance;

v) the useful life of the building and its elements;

vi) availability of materials;

vii) build schedule and tolerances

viii) Reduction of waste (labor, material, time).

The architectural culture of pre-independence Nigeria relied entirely on mud building techniques such as the use of adobe (adobe) and wattle and dove (mud wall construction) Aragbe 2011. After independence, the conventional building system “CBS” was imported from the admiration of Westernization. According to Benfield (2010), this system implies construction using in-situ masonry for exterior walls (block, brick, stone, concrete walls, or other ‘in-situ’ materials). Heavy reliance on the use of cement and other imported building materials for construction and maintenance has recently proven inefficient and wasteful due to the enormous consumption of resources (Ghosh 2002). .


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