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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC SOLAR STREET LIGHT

ABSTRACT

We are primarily concerned with the construction of a simple electricity streetlight that is automatically operated in this project. To make a solar-powered streetlight, you’ll need four essential components. The solar array, a high-efficiency D.C lamp section made up of transistors, resistors, and the sensor LDR, and a change controller made up of diodes, resistors, LEDs, capacitors, and a battery, the solar array being the most expensive. Due to the energy collected from the sun during the day, the solar array produced a D.C voltage, causing the battery to charge and, as a result, keeping the streetlight operational when it gets dark.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The significance of light to all humans cannot be overstated; even when the earth was created, it was illuminated with light, making it a living space. This means that without light, the entire planet is in darkness, and living things, whether plants, animals, or humans, cannot exist.

When talking about lighting, it comes from two different sources, which could be natural or electrical. The former comes from the Creator (God) while the latter is a result of our natural resources being utilized effectively by human beings. Since there is need for lighting, electric energy generation is employed to solve the problems people are facing during the day, especially at night when there is total darkness.

Since the invention of electrical energy for lighting, it is quite obvious that it requires human intervention to control the switch either off when not in use or ONM when the need arises. Due to this factor and poor supply of electricity, we have been able to find and alternative way of generating electricity for the purpose of illumination which is highly efficient and effective through the energy from the sun known as solar energy.

This involves the use of a module called solar panel, which receive the energy from the sun and convert it to electricity.

 

Basically, this project focused on the design and construction of a solar operated automatic streetlight.

The four major components needed to build construct a solar powered streetlight are: The solar panel, high efficiency d.c. Temperature, charge controller and a battery.

The solar panel has its major task to convert the sun’s energy into electricity, precisely D.C voltage. The basic circuitry on solar powered streetlights consists essentially of an automatic battery charger, fed by the solar panel and a lighting controller automated for dusk to down operation.

The charge controller projects the battery from over-charging, maximizes the charging voltage and current output of the solar panel.

To achieve the automatic operation of the streetlight, a photocell or a time, which senses the period of darkness and lightness, is used to trigger.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This project is being carried out in order to provide an alternate technique of generating power for lighting purposes by using sunlight.

The design of this project also ensures that natural resources (sunlight) are well utilized.

The solar panel, battery charge controller, which incorporates resistors, capacitors, led and diode, and bulb necessary for this project are efficient enough to produce the desired outcome without the usage of a power converter.

As a result, direct current (DC) driven lamps, notably LEDs, are used (Light Emitting Diodes).

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the project’s goals and objectives:

Solar energy is used to power a street lighting system.

 

To prevent rapid deterioration of the solar battery due to continuous day and night operation.

 

To automate the control of a solar-powered streetlight.

 

to make use of a naturally abundant resource (sun).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Relevant textbooks, journals, and related past project reports were consulted in the library while looking for information on this project. Furthermore, several visits to relevant web sites on the Internet cannot be considered overburdening.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of the design and construction of a solar-powered Automatic Street Light cannot be overstated in terms of its financial viability, especially in places where the cost of supplying a main supply is exorbitant. Due to the high effectiveness of the bulb utilized, it is capable of illuminating a huge area of land. Furthermore, it does not require human interaction to govern its operation, and power interruptions have no effect on it.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

With the usage of a solar module, this project design focuses on solar energy as a fast-growing technology for street lighting. A photocell can be used to automate the lighting control process. Alternatively, an LDR (Light-Dependent Resistor) eliminates the need for manual switching or control.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Every project has its own set of constraints. The main drawback of this project is that the sunlight required to generate electricity is scarce, especially during the winter.

As a result, the streetlight requires a huge battery to operate for at least three days in standby mode during cloudy weather without the battery being discharged below its safe functioning limit.

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