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DISTANCE PROXIMITY SENSOR

ABSTRACT

The construction and design of a distant proximity sensor employing LDR and LEDs are described in this project work. The design focuses on LDR sensors, which are the most prevalent and commonly used.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In today’s world, writing a project entails applying the ideas learned over the year to design and develop an operating system capable of executing a specific task.

From this perspective, we chose to create, design, and build this project, which is titled “Construction and design of distance proximity sensor utilizing LDR and LEDs for controlling current flow in the circuit system.”

Sensors are electronic devices that detect the presence or absence of an object. It evaluates the proximity of the driver’s body to impediments (both living and inanimate) that are either not visible to the driver or that the driver is unaware of (NEMA, 2013).

Building workers may face a loss of consciousness and focus as a result of the many repeated duties that are common in construction projects (Pratt et al. 2001, Teizer et al. 2010). Construction equipment operator visibility, particularly operator blind areas, can play a big role in ground worker-construction equipment collisions (Fullerton et al. 2009). On construction sites, a real-time proximity detection and warning system is required to alert equipment operators of potentially hazardous proximity conditions.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The following are the project’s problem statements:

The use of sensors is increasing with time, however there is no less expensive design that can detect objects (animate and inanimate) in near vicinity.

The most common types of proximity sensors are infrared and ultrasonic, and faulty components are uncommon to find on the market.

To address the scarcity of electronics for measuring distance, a new method of designing distance proximity sensors must be developed.

Scientific laboratory experiments are conducted without regard for safety, and safety awareness in school laboratories must be improved.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The goal of this project is to demonstrate and build a distant proximity sensor using Light Dependent Resistor technology (L.D.R). Proximity sensors can be built in a variety of ways, but this sort of light-dependent resistor is more sensitive than inductive and capacitive sensors, which are rarely employed in circuit designs. This is due to the fact that it is a photocell that operates on the principle of photoconductivity, and its resistance decreases as the light intensity decreases. When exposed to a high-intensity light source, light dependent resistors, also known as optoelectronic devices, automatically light up the light emitting diodes.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Proximity sensors are available in a variety of design voltages and ohms. The function of the sensor determines whether it is used to build an automatic street light circuit, a simple fire alarm circuit, a light activated circuit, an automated LED emergency light, or a night security light. The project focuses on the development of a distance sensor that uses light-dependent resistors and LEDs to detect obstacles in close proximity to the device.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The project work focuses on the development of proximity sensors for light meters, therefore the study’s limitations could be compared to financial constraints, time constraints, and difficulty in obtaining materials for the design.

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