The main problem with cassava starch stabilized bricks is their high water absorption. The effect of high water absorption makes the brick water-soluble, limiting its use only for interior partitions, not exteriors. Therefore, this study evaluates the effect of his three binders on compression stabilized adobe. The three binding media are macba, cassava starch, and cement. This study involved a laboratory study in which three sets of mud bricks were manufactured and a total of 107 air-hardened bricks were obtained by the dry process. Addition of three binder media, control (CO) and laterite mix, fixed binder combination (C1) and binder combination (C2). Brick samples were tested for permeability, sorption, water absorption, adsorption, compressive strength, abrasion resistance, and density at 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of curing time. The results show that the permeability of C2 has a minimum absorption of 7.90% after 56 days. The sorption capacity of C2 showed the lowest moisture increase of 5% at 10 minutes. The average water absorption of the test samples was observed to be 2.77% for C2 after 56 days. It complies with ASTM C 62 (2010) brick sample water absorption test. The compressive strength of C1 and C2 increased by 2.29 N/mm2 and 1.69 N/mm2, respectively. The setting time results confirmed that macba had a significant effect in accelerating the setting time of cement, whereas cassava starch slowed down the setting time of cement. The effect of the three binders on the high water absorption can be evaluated and the bricks produced are suitable for outdoor use. It is therefore recommended to use binder combination C2 for walls exposed to moisture such as exterior walls, bathroom and kitchen walls.

chapter One
1.1 Research background
In modern brickmaking practice, agricultural by-products are primarily used as raw materials for laterite brick manufacturing. They have many environmental benefits and economic impacts as stringent environmental regulations increase the cost of waste disposal. Waste recycling is a common step in most countries around the world. In Nigeria earthworks are used in his 20% of buildings in urban areas, but in rural areas this figure exceeds his 90%. Buildings are constructed wholly or partially of earth, depending on location, climate, available skills, cost, building use, and local traditions (Agib et al., 2001).
Laterite, derived from the Latin word for “later,” meaning brick, was first used by Buchanan in 1807 to describe a red, iron-rich material found in southern India. Soil color varies from red, brown, purple to black depending on iron oxide concentration (Agib et al, 2001). Laterites are highly weathered soils, highly variable but rich in iron, aluminum oxide, quartz and other minerals. They are abundant in the tropics and subtropics and are usually found just below the surface in grasslands or forest clearings in areas of high rainfall (Starry, 2007). Laterite is defined in the Encarta English Dictionary as red tropical soil.


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